Training The Memory - Teaching The Child
children mental informants intelligence
Memory is the ability to retain, recall, and recognize past intellectual impressions and mental images. How is a child's memory trained (e.g., by sight, by hearing, by association, by concentration, by clues)? What must the child learn by rote? On what occasions must something so learned be repeated? Is the child ever made to report one of its experiences in presence of others who were witnesses to the experience in order to test the child's accuracy of memory? How old is such a child? What explanation is given for an unusually good memory? What is responsible for this unusual memory, or who is responsible? How is a person with such a memory, especially a child, regarded by other children? By adults? Do informants know of anyone who was afflicted with amnesia, that is, with a partial or entire loss of memory? To what is this attributed? How explained? How cured? How is paramnesia, that is, a confusion of memory and imagination, interpreted (e.g., as lying, as a sign of delirium, considered a sign of illness)?
Training The Intellect
Intellect is the ability to form ideas and judgments, and to reason. Are variations in intelligence taken cognizance of?
By whom? On what basis? How classified? What variations in intelligence is expected between girls and boys? What proof is there of this difference? How is the child's intelligence developed (e.g., by letting it express an opinion; by comparison of opinions, and of things)? What is the informant's opinion of making a child (take notice of age of child) sit still and think through the matter of its bad conduct? Of finally telling what its bad conduct consisted of, what it should have done instead, and how it will behave on the next similar occasion? What is done for the child with superior intelligence (e.g., is it given special opportunities to learn, or special tutors, or directed into a dominating group, such as shamans, governors)? What child is thought to be predestined for leadership in his tribe?
Social Aspects Of Low Mentality
Get names of mentally deficient children. If possible, classify these as idiots (mental deficients who are not able to detect for themselves common physical dangers, such as the danger of walking over a precipice); as imbeciles (mental deficients who cannot protect themselves against ordinary physical dangers, such as a biting dog, a running horse, but who can remember work to be done by them); as morons (mental deficients who can contribute to their livelihood under favorable conditions, but who cannot compete on an equal level with other children of their own age). Note the percentage of such children when compared with the total number of children of the group or tribe.
Training The Will
The will is here defined as the ability to choose. Do informants believe that the power to choose is due to the child's own volition, or do they think that its choices are controlled by an internal power (e.g., the head, the heart, his spirit) or by an external power (e,g., the shaman, some supernatural spirit, its own parents)? What conscious effort is made to train the child to will the things that fit into the mores of its people (e.g., self-denial in food and talk; self-control and self-restraint in such areas as sex life, fright, jealousy, anger)? Who directs the child in this? Notice whether the child is encouraged to do things it dislikes to do (e.g., to stop its play when strangers arrive, to refrain from eating until all are served)? That conscious effort is made to set before the child ideals and right motives, and then to encourage the child to follow them?
Is the child encouraged to choose the best because it is the best? With what results? If parents plan a career for the child, how do they create a desire in the child to follow it?
What value do informants place on making the child give its full attention to unattractive things (e.g., to give undivided attention to an instruction, or to work)? What is done with a willful child (e.g., must it give its place of leadership in a play to another child; is it taught to give up, or to share, some of its own things with other persons)? What is done with a child that cannot take defeat? Do children recognize leadership in an equal? How is leadership encouraged? How is a child trained to overcome stubbornness? Disobedience? Inability to make decisions? What is done for a child that has shown formal contempt for a parental order? For a law of the tribe?
Location Of Mental Faculties
Ask informants with what part of the body one thinks. Trusts. Remembers. Betrays. Believes. Changes one's mind.