AMADEUS VIII., Count and first Duke of Savoy, and latterly pope or anti-pope, under the name of Felix V., was born at Chambery in 1383, and succeeded his father, Amadeus VII., in 1391. Having, by purchase or otherwise, added large territories to his patrimonial possessions, he became so powerful that the Emperor Sigismund. erected Savoy into a duchy in 1416; and after his elevation Amadeus added Piedmont and other provinces to his dominions. After this increase of rank and of territory he suddenly, in 1434, retired to a monastery at Ripaille. He does not appear, however, to have resigned his duchy, but continued to administer it through his son Louis. It is said, too, although some historians have cast doubts upon the story, that, instead of leading a life of asceticism, he spent much of the ducal revenues in furthering his own luxury and enjoyment. In 1439, when the pope, Eugenius IV., was deposed by the council at Basle, Amadeus, although not in orders, was elected, through bribery some say, his successor; and after resigning his duchy, was crowned in the following year as Felix V. In the stormy conflict that followed, the Emperor Frederick sided with Eugenius, and the nations of Europe, except Germany, which remained neutral, declared for the one pope or the other. In 1449 Amadeus thought it prudent to renounce his claim to the pontificate in favour of Nicholas V., who had been elected on the death of Eugenius. He, however, induced Nicholas to annul all the acts of Eugenius; to confirm the determination of the council of Basle to appoint him perpetual apostolical legate in Savoy, Piedmont, and the other places of his own dominions; and even to confer on him the bishoprics of Basle, Lausanne, Strasburg, and Constance. It was also conceded to Amadeus that he should continue to wear the pontifical dress, except in a very few particulars; that he should not be obliged to go to Rome to attend any general council; and that he, instead of kissing the pope's toe, should be permitted to kiss his cheek. Amadeus died at Geneva in 1451.