district population acres total head town
AMBALA, a division, district, and city of British India, under the jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of the Panjtib. The Ambala DIVISION comprises the districts of Ambala, and Ludhiana, in the plains, and the district of Simla, in the Himalayas. The last-named district consists of a few detached patches of territory, scattered among the territories of the petty chieftains by whom the neighbouring hills are held. Simla, district is, however, the seat of the supreme government of India during the hot weather, and its chief town, of the same name, is the largest hill station in India. The other two districts of the division lie upon the plains at the foot of the Himalayas. They are bounded on the N.E. by those mountains, on the N.W. by the river Satlej, on the S.W. by the district of Firozpur, the independent native state of Patiala, and the district of Karnal, and on the S.E. by the river Janina.
Lt...Maili DISTRICT stretches N.W. and S.E. along the lower face of the Himalayas, and lies between 29' 55' and 31' 14' N. lat„ and between 76' 37' and 77' 35' E. long. It is bounded on the N.E. by the Himalayas, on the N.W. by the river Satlej, on the S.E. by the river Joanna, and on the S.W. by the district of Ludhiana, the state of Patiala, and the district of Karmil. The total area of the district is 2625 square miles, or 1,651,930 acres, of which 913,526 acres are cultivated, 253,959 acres are cultivable, but not actually under tillage, and 452,415 acres are uncultivable and waste. The total population of the district, according to the census of 1565, amounts to 1,035,455 souls, divided into the following classes :Hindus, 659.333; Mahometans, 256.874; Sikhs. 56,440; others, 2511. The males numbered 367,930, and the females 467.555; the proportion of males to the total population being 51•54 per cent. The principal tribes and castes in point of numbers are-(1.) Jets, viz., Hindus and Sikhs. 161.967; Mahometans, 13.365: total, 175,335. (2.) Chimars (Hindus). 125.635. (3.) Rajputs-viz., Hindus and Sikhs, -20,121; Mahometans, 62,566: total, 52,957. (4.) Brahmans, 63,744. (5.) Gujjars-viz., Hindus and Sikhs, 21.500; Mahometans. 24,193' : total. 45.695. (6.) Banias (Hindus), 39,093. The total agricultural population was 501.056. Taking the population as compared with the area, the result gives 1.62 acres per head of the population. or 3-33 acres per head of the agricultural population. Putting aside the uneultivable and waste land, there are 1.15 acres of cultivated or cultivable land per head of the population, or 2-45 acres per head of the agricultural population. Taking only the area under actual cultivation, there are -91 acres per head of population, or 1-55 acres per head of the agricultural population. With one small exception, the whole district consists of a level 1, alluvial plain, sloping away gradually from the foot of the Himalayas, and lying between the rivers Janina and Satlej. These rivers do not materially affect the district, which has a drainage system of its own, consisting of the numerous torrents and water-courses which pour down upon it from the hills. In the southern portion of the district these torrents run in broad sandy beds scarcely below the surface of the country, and vary from 200 yards to a mile in width, until, at a distance of 20 or 30 miles from the hills, the: cssume the form of comparatively docile streams, with well-defined clay banks. Towards the northern portion of the district the torrents run in deep beds from the point where they debouch from the hills; they also differ from the streams of the southern tract in being free from sand. The principal of these northern streams is the Ghaggar, into which all the other minor streams sooner or later empty themselves, some within and some beyond the limits of the district. Whatever surplus water of this river is not swallowed up by irrigation passes on through Patiala state and Sirsa, and is finally lost in the sands of Rajputani. The Ghaggar is the only perennial stream within the district, and even it dwindles down to a tiny rivulet in the dry weather, and disappears altogether beyond the border of the district.
The Sind. ranjib. and Dehli railway passes through the centre of the district from south-east to north-wt, The other principal land routes are two main lines of road, one passin:g. through the district pa.m.1:el to the line of railway, and the other coming from Dehli and Karmil, entering it on the south, and running northward till the two roads meet at Ambili city. A less important road runs northward. from this town to the foot of the Himilayns, and forms the route to the hill station of Simli. The principal agricultural products of An district are wheat, grain, and barley for the spring harvest, and rice, joar (spiked millet), and Indian corn in the autumn. The total area under cultivation in 1S71-72 was, for the spring harvest 437.377 acres, and for the autumn crop 496,542 acres. 'The land settlement of the southern portion of the district was completed in 1553, and that of the northern part iu 3555. Both will expire in 1550. The following eight towns are returned as containing a population of upwards of 5000 souls, the first-named s,venl■,4ug also municipalities : Anthill, population, 50,00' souls : Shahid :id, 1E675: JagAdhri, 11,6;5; Sadhauni. 11.195: 1Zupar. ;7.,700 : BUmi, ; Thineswar, 7929 ; Maui 3Iajr.i, 5969. A muni,ipal income is also raised from the following seven towns :-Khar.,,r. Siswam 3lorindah, Pihewah, Ridaur, Ladwah, and Kbiziralqid. All the municipalities derive their revenue from a system of o,troi duties. The total revenue of AmIxila district for 1571 was :C101.?.62, of which 74 per cent., or £74,446, was derived from the land. The other principal items of revenue were as follows :-Distilleries, £3594, 14s.: drugs and opium, ;1.'3151, 4s. ; income-tax, ,C2709, 1 ; stamps, £9305. 14s.: local rates levied under Act xx. of 1571, 4:7653, 15s. Ambila is one of the territories previously held by a Sikh Sardar which lapsed to the East India Company in default of rightful heirs. The district was seized by Eaujit Singh during one of his marauding expeditious. This agIn-ession caused th-e. movement of British troops in 1509 which resulted in the treaty with lianjit Singh by which he was required to withdraw his army from the left bank of the Satlej, and to relinquish his recent conquests in Sirhind.
_1S1BIts CITY, the capital of the district of the same name, is situated in 30' 24' N. lat.. and 76' 49' E. long. It forms a large and important station on the Sind. Pan-jab, and Dehli railway. The military station and cantonments lie it few miles south-east of the town. Ambala is a large walled town, situated in a level and highly-cultivated country, well supplied with water, and capable of furnishing abundant supplies. The houses are built of burnt brick, and the streets are very narrow. The town population is returned at 50.662 souls, but this probably includes the English station. The population within muni- cipal limits numbers 24.040. divided as follows:-Agriculturists, 3226: non-agriculturists, 20.511. The town has been constituted a second-class municipality, the affairs of which are conducted by a committee consisting of six official and five non-official members. The municipal income is derived front an octroi duty. and the revenue has increased from £536, 16s. in 1567-65. to .-S1320 is 1571-72. The average incidence of municipal taxation in the latter year was ls. nd. per head of the population within municipal limits.