Amurath Or Murad
AMURATH or MuRAD I. was born in 1326 A.D. (726 A.m), succeeded his father Orkhau as sultan of the Ottoman Turks in 1360, and died in 1389. He is entitled to notice as being the first who led the Turkish arms into Europe, which he quickly overran as far as the Balkan. In 1361 he made himself master of Adrianople, where he fixed his residence, built a splendid mosque, and otherwise added to the architectural adornment of the city. The first treaty of peace between a Christian people and this formidable neighbour was struck in 1365, when the little republic of Ragusa put itself under his protection. His power becoming more and more formidable, Urban V. preached a crusade - disastrous, as it proved, for the crusaders--against him ; and John Palmologus, the Greek emperor, entered into an alliance with him. He had several rebellious to contend against, but he was invariably successful. One of his sons persuaded a son of Palmologus, who had been sent by his father to learn the art of war under Amurath, to join him in a revolt ; but the youthful conspirators were defeated. Immediate revenge was taken by the sultan on his own son, and the young Palmologus was sent back to his father with an imperious demand that he too should be punished. Like all great conquerors, Amurath was active in military reform ; he perfected the discipline of the spahis (or cavalry) and woinaks (or baggage corps), end gave stability to the janissaries, a body of troops that had been first incorporated by his father. Of literary culture he was altogether destitute, signing his treaties by dipping his hand in ink, and impressing the mark of three fingers together, with the thumb and fourth finger at a slight distance on each side. He lost his life at the close of a great battle at Kossova, which he had successfully fought against Lazarus, despot of Servia, and was succeeded by his son Bajazet.