AHMADNAGAR, a district and city in British India, in the province of Gujrat, within the jurisdiction of the Governor of the Presidency of Bombay. The COLLECTORATE extends from 18° 6' to 19° 50' N. lat., and from 73° 40' to 75° 37' E. long., and contains the following eleven talukas or sub-districts: - Nagar, Jamkhair, Parnair, Srfgonda, Karjat, Newasa, Kopargam, Sangamnair, Rahuri, Siogam, and Ankold. A natural boundary is formed on the west of the Ankola, talukd by the Western Ghats, and, further south, by the edge of the table-land of Pdrnair; on the S.W. the district is bounded by the Gor river; on the S. by the Bhima and Sholdpur collectorates; on the E. by the Nizam's dominions; on the N.E. by the Godavari river; and on the N. by the Nasik district. The total area of the district is returned at 4,209,036 acres, or 6576.62 square miles. Of the total area, 3,068,162 acres, or 4794.00 square miles, are cultivated; 121,474 acres, or 189.80 square miles, are cultivable, but not actually under tillage; and 1,019,400 acres, or 1,592.81 square miles, are uncultivable. The last portion includes (besides unarable lands) village sites, roads, tanks, rivers, die. The population of the district, according to the census taken on the night of the 21st February 1872, numbered 773,938 souls, divided into the following five classes: - Hindus, 716,820, or 92.62 per cent. of the total population; Mahometans, 42,435, or 5.49 per cent.; Buddhists, 12,547, or 1.62 per cent.; Christians, 941, or 0.12 per cent.; and other denominations, 1195, or 0.15 per cent. The bulk of the population consists of liarhattas and Kunbis, the latter being the agriculturists. On the north the district is watered by the Godavari and its tributaries the Prawara and the Milla; on the north-east by the Dor, another tributary of the Godavari; on the east by the Sephani, which flows through the valley below the Bald Ghat range; and in the extreme south by the Bhima and its tributary the Gor. The Shut river, another tributary of the Bhimit, flows through the Nagar and Karjat talulds. The collectorate on the whole is fairly well watered, although in some villages among the hills and spurs of the Western Ghats the supply is insufficient. The district is intersected by the Bombay and Agra road; a second road connects Puna via Serur with the town of Ahmadnagar, and is continued thence towards Maligam; a third road leads from Puna to Narayangam, besides various cross-tracts and minor roads connecting the different towns of the district.
The only important industry is weaving. The principal agricultural products are wheat, gram, bajra, joar, and tur dal. The early or spring crop is bajra and tur ; wheat, gram, and joar being sown later in the season. Several other food grains are also raised ; and sugar-cane, betel leaves, a little cotton, and all descriptions of vegetables are sown on suitable soils. The staple food of the people is bajra and joar (coarse kinds of millet). The total revenue of the district is returned at nearly £170,000 ; about £140,000 being derived from the land revenue. The total annual expenditure is returned at £50,000. The present land settlement was introduced about 1844-45, and the thirty years' leases are now beginning to fall in. In a few villages which were transferred to Ahmadnagar from the Nasik collectorate the leases have already expired, and a revision of the settlement is in progress (1873). The following eight towns are returned as containing a population of upwards of 6000 souls : - Ahmadnagar, population 32,841 ; Sangamnair, 9978; Pathardi, 7117 ; Khurde., 6889 ; Srigonda, 6175 ; Bhingar, 5752; Karjat, 5535; and Sonai, 5254. The municipal system has been introduced into the towns of Ahmadnagar, Sangamnair, and Bhingar. In the two first named, the municipal revenue is derived from a house tax and octroi duties on goods and articles imported into the town for consumption. In Bhingar the municipal revenue is raised by the levy of a classified tax on professions and trades carried on within the town. The municipal revenue and expenditure in 1872, together with the incidence of municipal tax per head of the population in each of the three towns, was as follows : - Ahmadnagar, municipal income, £3611, 18s.; municipal expenditure, £3557, 12s.; incidence per head of population, 2s. 214. Sangamnair, municipal income, £275, 4s., - 61-d. per head ; expenditure, £217. Bhingar, municipal revenue, £259, 18s.-81d. per head ; expenditure, £259, 18s. Ahmadnagar district contains 1 high school, 1 first-grade Anglo-vernacular school, 3 middle-class schools, 164 lower-class schools, and I girls' school. Education is making fair progress, and the number of schools is annually increasing as funds become available. For the protection of person and property, a regular police force of 594 men of all grades is maintained, at a cost, during 1872-73, of £9869. A village police, numbering 2042 men, is also kept up, at a cost of £1978 per annum. There are no special criminal classes in the district except a few Bhils, and they are now much less troublesome than formerly.