JERARIANS, a class in ancient Rome, composed of citizens who had suffered the severest kind of degradation the censors could inflict, but concerning whose exact position we have no precise information. Though heavily taxed, they did not enjoy the rights of citizenship beyond their liberty and the general protection of the state. They could not vote in assemblies or serve in the army, and were deprived of and excluded from all posts of honour and profit. Romans of the higher classes, as well as the plebeians, were liable to become YErarians. The name may be derived from ces, (en's, money, since they were mere tax-payers; or, which is more probable, it may refer to the list of them which the censors gave in to the cerarium or public treasury.
.ERARIUM, the public treasury at ancient Rome. It contained the moneys and accounts of the state, and also the standards of the legions, the public laws engraven on brass, the decrees of the senate, and other papers and registers of importance. The place where these public treasures were deposited, from the time of the establishment of the republic, was the temple of Saturn, on the eastern slope of the Capitoline hill. In addition to the common treasury, supported by the general taxes and charged with the ordinary expenditure, there was a reserve treasury, also in the temple of Saturn, the cerarivm sanctum (or samctivs), maintained chiefly by a tax of 5 per cent. on the value of all manumitted slaves, which was not to be had recourse to, or even entered, except in the extreme ' necessity of the state. Under the emperors the senate continued to have at least the nominal management of the cerarium, while the emperor had a separate exchequer, called the fiscus. But after a time, as the power of the emperors increased and their jurisdiction extended till the senate existed but in form and name, this distinction virtually ceased. Besides creating the fiscus, Augustus also established a military treasury (cerarium militare), containing all moneys raised for and appropriated to the maintenance of the army. The later emperors had a separate cerarium privatum, containing the monies allotted for their own use, distinct from the fiscus, which they administered in the interests of the empire.