mouldings hollows called norman
MOULDING (Lat. modulus, Ital. modanatura, Fr. mold-21re, Ger. Sims/ark). When any work is wrought into long regular channels or projections, forming curves or rounds, hollows, &e., it is said to be moulded, and each separate member is called a moulding. In mediaeval architecture the principal mouldings are those of the arches, doors, windows, piers, &c. The remains of Saxon work are so few, that we can tell but little about these mouldings. The arches have sometimes a simple rib on them, sometimes are chamfered, and sometimes arc quite plain. Early Norman work is much the same. By degrees, however, the arrises were finished by a round or bowtell. Later, hollows and rounds together becarne common, and the arches were set back one behind another, each being frequently supported by a jamb-shaft or column, though very often the arch mouldings continued down the jambs without any break. In the Early English style, the mouldings, for some time, like those of the preceding period, formed groups set back in squares ; they are smaller, lighter, more graceful, and frequently very deeply undercut. The scroll moulding is also common. Small fillets now became very frequent in the outer parts of the rounds. This has often been called the keel moulding, from its resemblance in section to the bottom of a ship ; sometimes also it has a peculiar hollow on each side like two wings. Later in the Decorated style the mouldings are more varied in design, though hollows and rounds still prevail. The undercutting is not - so deep, fillets abound, ogees are more frequent, and the ware mould, double ogee, or double ressaunt, is often seen. In many places the strings and labels are a round, the lower half of which is cut off by a plain chamfer. The mouldings in the later styles in some degree resemble those of the Decorated,, flattened and extended; they run more into one another, having fewer fillets, and being as it were less grouped. One of the principal features of the change is the substitution of one, or perhaps two (seldom more), very largehollows in the set of mouldings. These hollows are neither circular nor elliptical, but obovate, like an egg cut across, so that one-half is larger than the other. The brace mould also has a small bead, where the two ogees meet. Another sort of moulding, which has been called a lip mould, is common in parapets, bases, and weatherings. For the ancient mouldings see the general article, supra.
240nm:isms, ORNAMENTED. The Saxon and early Norman mouldings do not seem to have been much enriched, but the complete and later styles of Norman are remarkable for a profusion of ornamentation, the most usual of which is what is called the zig-zag. This seems to be to Norman architecture what the meander or fret was to the Grecian ; but it was probably derived from the Saxons, as it is very frequently found in their pottery. Bezants, quatrefoils, lozenges, crescents, billets, heads of nails, are very common . ornaments ; besides these, battlements, cables, large ropes, round which smaller ropes are turned, or, as our sailors say, " wormed," scallops, pellets, chains, a sort of conical barrels, quaint stiff foliages, beaks of birds, heads of fish, ornaments of almost every conceivable kind, are sculptured in Norman mouldings ; and they are used in such profusion as has been attempted in no other style. The decorations on Early English mouldings are chiefly the dog-tooth, which is one of the great characteristics of this style, though it is to be found in the Transition Norman. It is generally placed in a deep hollow between two projecting mouldings, the dark shadow in the hollow contrasting in a very beautiful way with the light in these mouldings. In this period and in the next the tympanum over doorways, particularly if they are - double doors, is highly ornamented. Those of the Decorated period resemble the former, except that the foliage is more natural, and the dog-tooth gives way to the ball-flower. Some of the hollows also are ornamented with rosettes set at intervals, which are sometimes connected by a running tendril, as the ball-flowers are frequently. Some very pleasing leaf-like ornaments in the labels of windows are often found in Continental architecture. In the Perpet .dicular period the mouldings are ornamented very frequently by square four-leaved flowers set at intervals, but the two characteristic ornaments of the time are running patterns of vine leaves, tendrils, and grapes in the hollows, which by old writers are called "vignettes in casements," and upright stiff leaves, generally called the Tudor leaf. On the Continent mouldings partook much of the same character.
IffuLmoN, 111uNioN, often corrupted into munting, monyal (Fr. mencau, Ital. regolo, Ger. Fensterpfoste). The perpendicular pieces of stone, sometimes like columns, sometimes like slender piers, which divide the bays or lights of windows or screen work from each other: In all styles, in less important work, the mullions are often simply plain chamfered, and more commonly have a very flat hollow on each side. In larger buildings there is often a bead or bowtell on the edge, and often a single very small column with a capital ; these are more frequent in foreign work than in English. Instead of the bowtell they often finish with a sort of double ogee. As tracery grew richer, the windows were divided by a larger order of mullion, between which came a lesser or subordinate set of mullions, which ran into each other.
IllmruLE (Lat. mattulus, a stay or bracket), the rectangular impending block under the corona of the Doric cornice, from which guttx or drops depend. Mutule is equivalent to modillion, but the latter term is applied more particularly to enriched blocks or brackets, such as those of Ionic and Corinthian entablatures.