ANNA CARLOVNA, who for a few months held the position of regent in Russia, during the minority of her son Ivan, was the daughter of Catherine, sister of the Empress Anna Ivanovna, and was born in 1718. In 1739 she married the duke of Brunswick WolfenbSttel, and their son Ivan was, in 1740, adopted by the empress and proclaimed heir to the throne. A few days after this proclamation the empress died, leaving directions regarding the succession, and appointing her favourite Biron as regent. Biron, however, had made himself an object of detestation to the Russian people, and Anna Carlovna, with the assistance principally of the able but intractable Munich, had little difficulty in overthrowing his power. She then assumed the regency, and took the title of grandduchess ; but she knew little of the character of the people with whom she had to deal, was utterly ignorant of the approved Russian mode of government, and speedily quarrelled with her principal supporters. In December 1741, Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great, who, from her habits, was a favourite with the soldiers, excited the guards to revolt, overcame the slight opposition that was offered, and was proclaimed empress. Ivan was thrown into prison, where he soon afterwards perished. Anna and her husband were banished to a small island in the River Dwina, where, in 1745, she died in childbed. Her husband survived her for many years.