BROACH (from broche, a spit), new used to designate a particular form of spire, the sides of which, with the angles of the tower, finish with a sort of haunching. (See SPIRE.) BurritEss, anciently written Botrasse, or Boterasse (Ital. puntello, Fr. contrefort, Ger. Strebepfeilcr), masonry projecting from a wall, and intended to strengthen the same against the thrust of a roof or vault. Buttresses are no doubt derived from the classic pilasters which serve to strengthen walls where there is a pressure of a girder or roof timber. In very early work they have little projection, and in fact are "strip-pilasters." In Norman work they are wider, 'frith very little projection, and generally, stop under a cornice or corbel table. Early English buttresses project considerably, sometimes with deep sloping weatherings in several stages, and sometimes with gabled heads, as at Beverley. Sometimes they are chamfered, and sometimes the angles have jamb shafts, as in the last example. At Wells and Salisbury they are richly ornamented with canopies and statues. In the Decorated period they became richly panelled in stages, and often finish with niches and statues and elegantly carved and crocketted gablets, as at York. In the Perpendicular period the weatherings became waved, and they frequently terminate with niches and pinnacles.
Berranss, FLYING (Fr. arc-boutant, Ital. puntello arcuato, Ger. Sircbcbogen), a detached buttress or pier of masonry at some distance from a wall, and connected therewith by an arch or portion of an arch, so as to discharge the thrust of a roof or vault on some strong point.