AREZZO, the ancient ARRETIIIM, a Tuscan city on the Chiana (Clanis), which is now an affiuent of the Arno, but formerly flowed into the Tiber. Arretium was one of the twelve cities of the ancient Etruscan Confederation, and continued after its incorporation with the Roman dominion to be a highly important military post. Having sided with Marius in the civil war, the Aretines were deprived by Sulla of their Roman citizenship; but the city received a colony under Augustus, and seems to have had a peculiar municipal constitution. In the time of Pliny it was known for its pottery, and many specimens of the bright red ware, with ornaments in relief, differing from the productions of Southern Etruria, have been preserved to the present day. Among the relics that have been discovered here are the bronze statues of Minerva and the Chimmra, now in the Florentine Gallery. In modern history Arezzo is chiefly remarkable for the obstinate opposition it maintained against the pertinacious encroachments of the Florentines, to whom, however, it had finally to submit. It is now a clean, well-built, well-paved, and flourishing town of 10,000 inhabitants, the seat of a bishop and a prefect, with a theological seminary, a surgical school, a library, and a museum. In its cathedral are the tombs of Guido Tarlati, its warlike bishop, who died in 1327, Gregory X. (1276), and Redi the naturalist (1698). Few cities can show such a list of remarkable men as ArezzoMcenas (I), Guido, famous for his musical discoveries, Guittone the poet, Petrarch, Leonardo Bruno the historian, Cesalpini the botanist, Margheritone and Spinello the painters, Alberghotti the jurist, Pope Julius III., Pietro Aretino the satirist, Vasari the author of Lives of the Artists, Redi already mentioned, Fossombroni the mathematician and engineer.