manna called fraxinus name
ASGILL, Jony, an eccentric writer who flourished during of the 17th and 18th centuries. The exact date of his birth is uncertain. Ife was bred to the law, and gained considerable reputation, not only by his skill in his profession, but from his first published writings. These consisted of two pamphlets - the first advocating the establishment of some currency other than the usual gold and silver, the second on the registry for titles of lands. His affairs, however, became embarrassed ; and in 1699, when a commission was appointed to settle disputed claims in Ireland, he set out for that country, attracted by the hopes of practice. Before leavinc, London he put in the hands of the printer a tract, entitled An Argument proving that, according to the Covenant of Eternal Life revealed in the Scripture, Han may be translated from hence into that Eternal Life without passing through Death. The fame of this extraordinary pamphlet, in which Asgill spoke of dying as an unnecessary and foolish custom, preceded the author, and was of material service in securing his professional success. He amassed money, and purchased an estate, which unfortunately involved him in a lengthy litigation. In 1703 he took his seat in the Irish Parliament, but was dismissed after four clays on account of his so-called blasphemous pamphlet. In 1705 he sat in the English Parliament for Bramber ; but in 1707 he was expelled, nominally on account of his unlucky pamphlet, but really, perhaps, because of his debts. The remainder of his life he spent in the Fleet and King's Bench prisons, in one of which he died in 1738. He wrote a number of pamphlets on the Pretender and on the Hanoverian succession.
Several of his tracts were collected, and published in London, 1715.
ASH (French, Frene, German, Esche) is the name given to several kinds of trees. The taller or common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) belongs to the Natural Order Oleacece, the olive family. It is distinguished by its fruit, which is dry and winged. Normally the fruit should be two-celled and two-seeded ; but generally, by abortion, there is only one cavity and one seed. The Hebrew word Oren, translated ash in Isaiah xliv. 14, cannot refer to an ash tree, as that is not a native of Palestine, but probably to the Syrian pine (Finns halepensis). The ash is indigenous in Europe, and also extends to Asia. The tree is distinguished for its height and contour, as well as for its graceful foliage. It is one of the most useful of British trees as regards both timber and rapidity of growth. The tree attains a height of from 50 to 80 feet, and flowers in March and April, before the leaves are developed. It thrives best in a dry loamy soil, and, as it exhausts the soil in which it grows, it injures plants growing near it. The flowers grow in clusters, but are not showy. The leaves are compound, and unequally pinnate. A variety of ash, called Fraxinus heterophylla, diverse-leaved, has simple leaves. Another variety of ash is met with in which the branches are pendulous and weeping. Sometimes this variety is grafted on the tall stem of the common ash, so as to produce a pleasing effect. It is said that the weeping variety was first observed at Gamlingay, in Cambridgeshire. A variety also occurs with curled leaves, and another with warty stems and branches, called Fraxinus verrucosa. In Europe there is also a small-leaved ash, called Fraxinus parnyolia. In America there are several additional species - such as Fraxinus americana, the white American ash ; F. pubescens, the black ash ; and F. sambucifolia, the winter ash. Another plant which bears the name of ash is Fraxinus 0111218, or, more properly, 0111118 enropa'a, the flowering or manna ash. Another species is Ornus rotundi lam, the round-leaved manna ash. The manna ash is a small tree found in Italy, and extending to Switzerland, South Tyrol, Hungary, Greece, Turkey, and Asia Minor. It also grows in the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia. It blossoms early in summer, producing numerous clusters of whitish flowers. The word manna was first applied to the food supplied miraculously to the Israelites in the desert, but what it was cannot be determined. The name is now given to various saccharine exudations. The manna of commerce is collected almost entirely in Sicily from the manna ash. In order to get it, transverse cuts are made deep into the bark, so as to allow the manna to exude. The best kind is called " flake " manna. It consists of manna sugar, or mannite. The mountain ash belongs to a totally different family from the common ash. It is called Pyrns aucnparia, and belongs to the Natural Order Rosacece, and the tribe Pomecc, which includes also apples, pears, &c. Its common name in Scotland is the rowan tree, and it is well known by its succulent scarlet fruit. Pear trees are sometimes grafted on the mountain ash. The name of poison ash is given to Mats venenata, belonging to the Anacardiacece (Cashew family). The bitter ash of the West Indies is Simaruba excelsa, which belongs to the Natural Family Simarubacece. The Cape ash is°L7cebergia capensis, belonging to the Natural Order Afeliacece. The prickly ash, Xanthoxylon fraxineum, belongs to the Natural Order Xanthoxylacece.