BASILICATA, or, as it is also called, POTENZA, a province of Italy, bounded on the N. by Capitanata, N.E. by Terra di Bari, E. by Otranto and the Gulf of Taranto, S.. by Calabria Citra, S.W. by the Mediterranean, W. by Principato Citra, and N.W. by Principato Ultra. It has an area of 4120 English square miles, and is divided into the four districts of Lagonegro, Matera, Melfi, Potenza. The population in 1871 was 500,543. In the N.W. of the territory the Apennines divide into two branches, the one running eastward to Terra di Bari, and the other southward to Calabria. The principal rivers are the Bradano, Basento, Salandrella, Agri, and Sinno, all flowing into the Gulf of Taranto. The principal productions are maize, wine, linen, hemp, and tobacco ; swine, goats, and sheep, are numerous ; and the produce of the silkworm forms a considerable branch of industry. The cotton plant thrives well on low grounds near the sea. The chief towns are Poteuza, Melfi, Francavilla, Rionero, and Tursi.