town servian prince
BELGRADE (in Servian, Bielyorocl, or White Town), the capital of the Servian principality, situated at the confluence of the Save and the Danube, on the right bank of the latter stream, opposite the Austrian town and fortress of Semlin. Lat. 44' 47' N., long. 20° 28' E. It is built both on, and at the side of, a northern spur of the Avala heights, the rocky summit being crowned by its once famous citadel, which still remains very much as it was left by Prince Eugene, except that on the E., S., and W. the glacis has been changed into a promenade. The town was formerly divided into three parts, namely, the Old Town, the Rassian. Town (Sara maltala or Save-district), and the Turkish town (Doreol, or Cross-road). A great change has, however, taken place in the course of the present century, and the old divisions are only partially applicable, while there has to be added the Tirazia, an important recent suburban extension along the line of the aqueduct or Tirazi. Since 1869 great activity has been shown in building, and the Old Town is gradually being regulated according to a definite plan. The general appearance of the place is growing more and more European ; its mosques and minarets, protected from actual demolition by a Turkish treaty, are falling into ruin from neglect. As the seat of the Servian Government, and the residence of the prince and the archbishop, Belgrade possesses a royal and an episcopal palace, a foreign and a home office, and other public buildings. Its educational institutions arc remarkably numerous, consisting of a high school, several normal schools, a gymnasium, a theological seminary, a military academy, an industrial school, and an upper school for girls. There is a theatre devoted to the development of the national drama ; and in the same building with the high school there is preserved a valuable collection of national antiquities as well as an extensive library. Besides the mosques, the ecclesiastical buildings include a cathedral and several Greek churches, a Roman Catholic chapel in the Austrian embassy, and an evangelical church. Among places of historical interest are the ruins of Prince Eugene's palace, and the monument in the Topjidere park on the spot where Prince Michael was assassinated in 1868. • The citadel has been already mentioned; a commandant's residence, barracks, and a military hospital are among its subsidiary buildings. Though its situation is highly conducive to mercantile activity, the commerce of Belgrade is not so great as would naturally be anticipated. It holds, however, direct commercial relations not only with Vienna and Constantinople but with Manchester. There are only two monetary establishments, one known as the " First Bank," and the other a bank of credit. The principal industrial products of the city are cotton-stuffs, carpets, leather, and fire-arms. Belgrade is identified with the ancient 6`ingidunum, and was the station of the Legio IV. Flavia Felix. It has from its earliest existence been a place of military importance, and in modern times has sustained many sieges, and repeatedly passed from the hands of the Austrians to those of the Turks. It was taken by Soliman II. in 1521, and retaken by the Austrians in 1688, but again lost in 1690. In 1717 it surrendered to Prince Eugene. The imperialists retained it till 1739, when the Turks invested and reduced it. Austria again took it in 1789, but it was restored at the peace of 1791. In the year 1806 the Servian insurgents succeeded in carrying it. In 1862 it was bombarded from the citadel on account of a contest raging between the Turkish and Servian inhabitants, but five years later it was completely evacuated by the foreign forces, and the citadel received a garrison of Servian soldiers. The only mark of Turkish occupation is the banner which continues to be shown from its walls along with the national colours. Population in 1872, 26,674.