BEIRA, a province of Portugal, bounded on the N. by the provinces of Traz-os-Montes and Minho, E. by Spain, S. by Alemtejo and Portuguese Estremadura, and W. by the Atlantic. Area about 8586 square miles. Population in 1871, 1,294,282. It is administratively divided into the districts of Aveiro, Coilnbra, Vizeu, C uarda, and Castello Branco, while it is popularly regarded as consisting of the three sections of Beira-Alta or Upper Beira, BeiraBaixa, or Lower Beira, and Beira-111ifr, or Maritime Beira. Except along the coast, the surface is for the most part mountainous, - the highest point, in the Serra de Estrella, being 7521 feet. Besides the Douro, which is far the largest, the Aguada, the Mondego, the Youga, and the Zezere are the principal rivers. The soil, except in the valleys, is dry and rocky, and large stretches are covered with heath. The principal agricultural productions are maize, wheat, garden vegetables, and fruit. The olive is largely cultivated, the oil forming one of the chief articles of export ; and good wine is also produced. In the flat country between Coimbra and Aveiro the marshy land is laid out in rice-fields, or in pastures for herds of cattle and horses. The rearing of sheep is not so well attended to as formerly, except in Upper Beira. in the neighbourhood of Lamego swine are reared in considerable numbers, and furnish the well-known Lisbon hams. There is comparatively little manufacturing industry in the province, with the exception of the production of woollen cloth, which occupies a large part of the population in the district of Castello Branco or Covilhao. Silver and lead ores exist in the mountains, but are neglected. Iron, coal, and marble are worked to some extent, and millstones are quarried in some places. Salt is obtained in considerable quantities from the lagunes along the coast. There is a striking difference of character between the inhabitants of the lower and more elevated regions of Beira, the former being sociable and courteous, if also indolent and lax in morals ; while the latter are grave and reserved, hardy and industrious. The principal towns in the province are Coimbra, Vizeu, Aveiro, Omar, and Lamego. The heir-apparent to the throne of Portugal has the title of Prince of Beira.