BENGUELA, a country on the western coast of Africa, situated to the south of Angola, between 10° and 11° S. lat., and extending from the River Coanza to the Cunene, which is otherwise known as Nourse, Rio das Trombas, Rio dos Elephantes. The country rises from the coast inwards till it attains a decidedly mountainous character. There is great abundance both of vegetable and animal life ; and the higher regions contain mines of copper, silver, iron, and salt. The inhabitants belong to the Congo race and speak the Bunda language. In 1617 the Portuguese under Manoel Cerveira Pereira founded the town of S. Felipe de Benguela near the mouth of the Cavaco, on the Bahia das Vacas (Santo Antonio, or Cone's Bay), in 12° 34' S. lat. and 13° 20' E. long. It was long the centre of an important trade, especially in slaves, but has now greatly declined. There is but little traffic, and no manufactures. Besides the churches of S. Felipe and S. Antonio, the hospital, and the fortress, there are only a few stone-built houses. The negro town of Catombela, about 8 miles distant., is in a more flourishing condition. A short way below Benguela is Bahia Tarta, where salt is manufactured and sulphur excavated. The town of Old Benguela is situated about 130 miles to the N. ; and about 80 miles in that direction lies the Presidio of Novo Redondo, where fortifications were erected in 1769. Among the more important inland towns are Bailundo, and Caconda, in the last of which the Portuguese have long had a fortress. The southern portion of Benguela forms the separate government of Mossamedes, of which the capital of the same name is situated on the Bay of Mossamedes at the mouth of the River Baro (Rio das Mortes). The bay was formerly called Angra do Negro, and received its present designation in honour of Baron Mossamedes about 1785. The town, which is known to the natives as Mossongo-Bittolo, was not founded till 1840. The population of the whole territory of Benguela is estimated at about 140,000.