district revenue expenditure
BOGRA, correctly BAGURk, a district in the Rajshallf division, within the Lieutenant-Governorship of Bengal, situated between 25° 20' and 24° 20' 28" N. lat., and 88° 55' 30" and 89° 49' 25" E. long. It is bounded on the N. by the districts of Dinajpur and Rangpur, on the E. by the districts of Iiangpur and Maimansinh, on the S. by the district of Pabna, and on the W. by the districts of Rajslialn and Dinajpur. The revenue area of the district in 1870 was 2000 square miles, of which 1750 were returned as under cultivation, 125 as cultivable but not actually cultivated, and 125 as uncultivable waste. The census of 1872 returned the police area of the district at 1500 square miles, and disclosed a population of 689,467 souls, of whom 556,620, or 80 per cent., were Mahometans ; 130,644, or 19 per cent., Hindus ; 22 Christians ; and 2181 were classified as " others." Density of population in the census area, 59 per square mile. The district stretches out in a level plain, intersected by numerous streams and dotted with patches of jungle. The Karatoya River flows from north to south, dividing the district into two portions, possessing very distinct characteristics. The eastern tract consists of rich alluvial soil, well watered, and subject to fertilizing inundations, yielding heavy crops of coarse rice, oilseeds, and jute. The western portion of the district is high-lying and produces the finer qualities of rice. The principal rivers are formed by the different channels of the Brahmaputra, which river here bears the local names of the Ronal, the Da.okoba, and the Jamund, the last forming a portion of the eastern boundary of the district. Its bed is studded with alluvial islands. The Brahmaputra and its channels, together with three minor streams, the Bengali, Karatoya, and Alai, afford admirable facilities for commerce, and render every part of the district accessible to native cargo boats of large burden. The rivers swarm with fish, - the value of the fisheries being estimated at £45,000 a year. The principal products of the district are rice, pease, pulses, oilseeds, jute, sugar-cane, mulberry, red pepper, and hemp for smoking (Cannabis indica). These products, together with clarified butter and a little silk, form the chief articles of export. The imports consist of salt, cloth, tobacco, areca-nuts, copper and brass utensils, spices, iron and piece goods. The chief trading markets are Bogra, Lakhmiganj, Buriganj, Dhupehachia, &c. A silk factory has been established at .Naoclapara, and is conducted with European capital, with an annual outlay of about £4500. The revenue and expenditure of the district have steadily increased of late years. In 1853 the total revenue of the district amounted to £48,431, and the civil expenditure to £7282 ; in 1860, revenue £57,744, and civil expenditure £11,013 ; in 187071 the revenue had risen to £59,979. In 1870-71 the district contained 1064 separate estates held by 2497 proprietors, paying a total Government laud revenue of X44,347. The machinery for protecting person and property consists of six magisterial and six civil courts, with (1) a regular police force, numbering 54 officers and 252 men, and costing Government £5975 ; (2), a rural constabulary or village watch, numbering 2552 men, and costing £6635, paid by the landholders and villagers ; and (3), municipal police, numbering 36 men, and costing £251. In 1871-72 there were 41 Government and aided schools in the district, attended by 1492 pupils, and maintained at a total cost of £1398, of which £692 was contributed by the state. The total number of aided and unaided schools in the district is returned in the census of 1872 at 169, attended by 1685 pupils. The only town containing upwards of 5000 inhabitants in the district is Bogra, the administrative headquarters, situated on the Karatoya River ; population in 1872, 5872 ; municipal income, £282 ; expenditure, £208 ; rate of taxation per head, 1 1 id. There is one other municipality, Sherpur, formerly a place of importance when the East India Company had silk filatures in its neighbourhood. A great part of this town is now overgrown with jungle ; the municipal income in 1869 was £246, the expenditure £174. The climate of Bogra is mild during the winter, but sultry and oppressive at other seasons. The average annual rainfall for the five years ending 1869 was 82 inches, and the average annual temperature 77° Fahr.