BENDER, a town of Russia, the capital of a district in the province of Bessarabia, situated on the right bank of the Dniester, 35 miles from Kisheneff, in 46' 49' N. lat. and 29° 29' E. long. It possesses three Greek churches, a Roman Catholic church, a dissenting place of worship, four synagogues, and a mosque. Its industrial establishments include a tobacco-factory, candle-works, and brick-kilns. An important trade is carried on by means of its harbour on the Dniester and the road that leads to Odessa, - the greater part of the ships discharging their cargoes here to be conveyed by land to Odessa and Jassy. The principal articles of trade are corn, wine, wool, cattle, tallow, and especially timber, which is floated down the Dniester. The citadel is separated from the town by an eminence, which bears the name of the Suwaroff mound ; in its eastern part is a wooden castle with towers. There are also four suburbs to the town, which in 1867 had a population of 24,443, the greater proportion of them being Jews. As early as the 12th century the Genoese had a settlement on the site of Bender. The Moldavians called the place Teegeen, and the name of Bender was only bestowed by the Turks in the end of the 14th century. In 1709 Charles XII., after the defeat of Poltava, collected his forces here in a camp which they called New Stockholm, and continued there till 1711. Bender was thrice taken by the Russians, - by Panim in 1770, Potemkin in 1789, and Meyendorf in 1806, - but it was not held permanently by Russia till the Bucharest peace of 1812.