BRIANSK, a town of Russia, in the government of Orloff, 98 miles E.N.E. of the city of that name, in 53° 15' N. lat., and 22° 50' E. long., on both banks of the Desna, opposite the mouth of the River Snezheta. It is divided into four parts by several smaller streams. The town is mentioned in 1146, and then bore the names of Briansk and Debriansk. It afterwards formed a separate principality, which came to an end in 1356 with the death of Prince Basil Alexandrovitch. After the Mongolian invasion Briansk and the whole Siever country fell under the power of the Lithuanians ; but from time to time it was united with Russia, and finally became incorporated with the empire in the beginning of the 17th century in the reign of Michael Theodorovitch. Under the first Demetrius Briansk was taken by the rebels, but successfully resisted the attacks of the second impostor. Under the Empress Anna, according to the plan of Paul I., there was constructed a dock for the building of ships, but it was closed in 1739. In 1778 the town was made the capital of a department in Orloff, and in 1783 an arsenal, which still exists, was established for the manufacture of artillery. Briansk has thirteen churches, of which the cathedral was built in 1526, and restored in the end of the 17th century. In the sacristy is preserved a manuscript copy of the gospels in the writing of Michael Theodorovitch, which dates from 1637. In the convent of Peter and Paul is buried Oleg Romanovitch, prince of Chernigoff and Briansk, who lived in the 13th century. There are two high schools in the town, a hospital, and a dispensary ; and the industrial establishments include rope-walks, tobacco-factories, brick-works, tallow-boiling works, flour-mills, and a brewery. A considerable trade is carried on, especially in wood, pitch, linseed-oil, and. cattle, which are exported to Moscow and St Petersburg. There are markets twice a week, and one annual fair. In 1860 the population was 12,816, all of the Greek Church except 268 Catholics and 35 Jews. -In 1867 it amounted to 13,881.