BRONN, the capital of the Austrian margraviate of Moravia, is situated for the most part between two hills at the confluence of the Schwarzawa and the Zwittawa, 69 miles N. of Vienna and 115 W.S.W. of Prague, with both of which it is connected by railway. Lat. 49° 11' 39" N., long. 16° 39' 35" E. On one of the hills known as the Spielberg stands the castle of the same name, which has long been used as a prison, and is famous for its connection with the patriotic Silvio Pellico, who was confined within its walls for about eight years. The old town, which is comparatively small, still retains some of its fortifications, but most of them have given place to promenades. Its streets arc narrow and crooked but well-paved, and it contains many of the most important buildings in the city. Extensive suburbs have grown up around it, and since 1849 form portions of the same commune. There are fine public gardens and a large park known as the Augarten, presented to the town by the Emperor Joseph II. The Rathhaus, which dates from 1511, has a fine Gothic portal, and contains several interesting antiquities. The ecclesiastical buildings comprise the cathedral of St Peter's, situated on the lower hill ; the fine Gothic church of St James, built in the 15th century, with its iron tower added in 1845, and a remarkable collection of early typography ; the church of the Augustine friars, dating from the 14th century ; that of the Minorites with its frescoes, its holy stair, and its Loretto-house ; the bishop's palace ; a splendid Jewish synagogue; and several monastic establishments. As the capital of the province Briinn is the seat of the chief legal and military courts, and thus possesses various official edifices, the old Jesuit convent having been turnedinto barracks. It is also the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and of a Protestant consistory. Its educational and benevolent institutions comprise a theological seminary, a gymnasium, several academies and schools, an agricultural society, a botanic garden, an infirmary, an orphanage, a blind asylum, a deaf-mute institution, a lunatic asylum, and several hospitals, of which the most important is the great hospital of St Anna. The national museum for Moravia and Silesia, though comparatively poor, must also be mentioned. Briinn is one of the chief seats of the woollen manufacture in the Austrian dominions, and the centre of a largo miscellaneous trade. Considerable quantities of silk and cotton goods are manufactured, as also leather, paper, tobacco, oil, and sugar. There are also steam-flour-mills, engineering works, and breweries. There is a remarkable viaduct in the immediate neighbourhood of the town. Briinn probably dates from the 9th century. In the 11th it was bestowed by Duke Wratislas II. on his son Otto. Briinn is a place of great strength, and held out successfully against sieges - in 1428 by the Hussites, in 1467 by King George of Bohemia, in 1645 by the Swedish general Torstenson, and in 1742 by the Prussians. In 1805 it was the headquarters of Napoleon before the battle of Austerlitz. Its population in 1869 was 73,771.