Giuliano Di Sangallo
florence architect military
GIULIANO DI SANGALLO (1443-1517) was a distinguished Florentine architect, sculptor, tarsiatore, and military engineer. His father, Francesco di Paolo Giamberti, was also an able architect, much employed by Cosimo de' Medici. During the early part of his life Giuliano worked chiefly for Lorenzo the Magnificent, for whom he built a fine palace at Poggio-a-Cajano, between Florence and Pistoia, and strengthened the fortifications of Florence, Castellana, and other places. Lorenzo also employed him to build a monastery of Austin Friars outside the Florentine gate of San Gallo, a nobly designed structure, which was destroyed during the siege of Florence in 1530. It was from this building that Giuliano received the name of Sangallo, which was afterwards used by so many Italian architects. While still in the pay of Lorenzo, Giuliano visited Naples, and worked there for the king, who highly appreciated his services and sent him back to Florence with many handsome presents of money, plate, and antique sculpture, the last of which Giuliano presented to his patron Lorenzo, who was an enthusiastic collector of works of classic art. After Lorenzo's death in 1492, Giuliano visited Loreto, and with great constructive skill built the dome of the church of the Madonna, in spite of serious difficulties arising from its defective piers, which were already built. In order to gain strength by means of a strong cement, Giuliano built his dome with pozzolana brought from Rome. Soon after this, at the invitation of Pope Alexander VL, Giuliano went to Rome, and designed the fine panelled ceiling of S. Maria Maggiore. He was also largely employed by Julius II., both for fortification walls round the castle of S. Angelo, and also to build a palace adjoining the church of S. Pietro in Vincoli, of which Julius had been titular cardinal. Giuliano was much disappointed that Bramante was preferred to himself as architect for the new basilica of St Peter, and this led to his returning to Florence, where he was warmly received by the gonfaloniere Pier Soderini, and did much service to his native state by his able help as a military engineer and builder of fortresses during the war between Florence and Pisa. Soon after this Giuliano was recalled to Rome by Julius II., who had much need for his military talents both in Rome itself and also during his attack upon Bologna. For about eighteen months in 1514-1515 Giuliano acted as joint-architect to St Peter's together with Raphael, but owing to age and ill-health he resigned this office about two years before his death in 1517. But little remains to enable one to judge of Giuliano's talents in the artistic side of his profession ; the greater part of his life was spent on military works, in which he evidently showed great skill and practical knowledge of construction.
ANTONIO DI SANGALLO (14481-1534) was the younger brother of Giuliano, and took from him the name of Sangallo. To a great extent he worked in partnership with his brother, but he also executed a number of independent works. As a military engineer he was as skilful as Giuliano, and carried out important works of walling and building fortresses at Arezzo, Montefiascone, Florence, and Rome. His finest existing work as an architect is the church of S. Biagio at Montepulciano, in plan. a Greek cross with central dome and two towers, much resembling, on a small scale, Bramante's design for St Peter's. He also built a palace in the same city, various churches and palaces at Monte Sansavino, and at Florence a range of monastic buildings for the Scrvite monks.
Antonio retired early from the practice of his profession, and spent his latter years in farming.