PROBUS, 3-IA1z:ens AURELIUS, Roman emperor from 276 to 28'2 A.D., was a native of Sirmium on the Save, and son of a military officer of moderate fortune. He early entered the army, where he recommended himself to the emperor Valerian, and against all rule became tribune while still a mere lad. In these times there were abundant oppor-tunities for a capable officer, and Probus served with great distinction in all parts of the empire. Under Aurelian lie operated against the Pahnyrene realin in Egypt and had a large part in the restoration of Roman authority in the East. On Aurelian's death he was quite the most pro-minent military officer of Rome, and had a great hold on the troops by his constant care for their comfort, his judicious discipline, and his unselfishness. Tacitus is said tp have hesitated to assume the purple which Probus was better fitted to wear, and it is certain that Ile felt the support of Probus indispensable, and raised him to the rank of commander of the whole East. In a few months the purple actually fell to him, for on the news of Tacitus's death his soldiers at once made him emperor, Florianus, who had claimed to succeed his brother, was put to death by his own troops, and the senate were eager to ratify the choice of the army. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers ; the fiercest and most bloody of these operations was directed to clearing Gaul of the Germans. Probus had also to put down three usurpers, Saturninus, Proculus, and Bonosus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the plant-ing of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia., and other districts where a selfish policy had previously forbidden this form of husbandry-. This increase of duties was naturally unpopular with the troops, and while the emperor was urging on the draining of the marshes of his native place he was attacked and slain by a sudden mutiny. Scarcely any emperor has left behind him so good a reputation; his death was mourned alike by senate and people, and even the soldiers presently repented and raised a monument in honour of " Probus imperator vere probus." According to the Citron. Alex. Probus was fifty- years old at the time of his death ; lie left a. family, but they withdrew into private life in northern Italy, and the empire fell to Carus.