cape lisbon serra feet coast south chief portuguese alemtejo spain
PORTUGAL GEOGRAPHY - kingdom of Portugal, which is geographically a province of the Iberian Peninsula on its west coast, is bounded on the N. by the Spanish province of Galicia, on the E. by the Spanish provinces of Leon, Estrernadura, and Andalusia, and on the S. and W. by the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between 36° 56' and 42° 10' N. lat. and 6° 15' and 9° 30' W. long. It is 362 miles in length by 140 in breadth, and contained by the latest (1878) com-putation 34,114 square miles. Its coast-line is nearly 500 miles in length, and only one province, Tras-os-Montes, is not washed by the sea. On the extreme north the coast is low, but farther south it becomes rocky and steep for a few miles near Povoa de Varzim. From that town to Cape Ca,rboeiro the coast of Beira is flat, sandy, and marshy, closely resembling the French Landes; after another stretch of dunes it airain becomes steep and rugged from Cape Roca to Cape gpichel, and along the northern side of the 13ay of Setubal, and then remains low throughout the rest of the coast-line of Estremadura (Portuguese). In Alemtejo the coast is low and in places rocky a,nd full of shallows ; and, although at Cape St Vincent the cliffs are steep and inaccessible, the general coast-line of Algarves, the southernmost province of Portugal, is low and sandy. The chief capes, which form the only cliffs on the other-wise flat and sandy coast, are Cape Mondego, Cape Car-boeiro, Cape Roca, Cape Espichel, Cape Sines, Cape St Vincent, and Cape Santa Maria, and the chief bays are those of Figueira, Ericeira, Setubal, and Sines. The only islands off the coast are the dangerous Farilh6es and the Berlengas off Cape Carboeiro, v..hich would be uninhabited but for an old ca.stle, now used as a prison, on the largest island of the latter group.
The mountain-systems of Portugal can only be adequately treated under SPAIN (q.v.), as they are in every instance continuations to the west or south-west of the great Spanish ranges. Thus the mountains of the Cantabrian Pyrenees in Galicia spread themselves over the two northern provinces of Portugal, Entre Minho e Douro and Tras-os-Montes, in various short ranges, of which the most im-portant are the Serra do Gerez (4815 feet) and the Serra de Mara° (1665 feet), the latter extending down the left bank of the Tameja and sheltering the wine-districts of Tras-os-Montes from the east winds. In Beira the granite Serra da Estrella (6,510 feet), the loftiest range in Por-tugal, forms part of the system-of the Guadarramas and a continuation of the Sierra de Gata, and terminates in the Serra de Lousiio (3940 feet), while the chalk mountains in the south of the province, such as the Monte Junto near Santarem (2185 feet) and the Serra de Cintra, which runs into the sea at Cape Roca, belong to a different geological period. The chalk mountains of the Serra de Arrabicla (1537 feet) to the south of the Tagus correspond with the Serra de Cintra, and form Gape Espichel ; but the other low ranges to the south of the river in Alemtejo, such as the Serra de San Mamede (3363 feet) and the Serra de Ossa (2130 feet), belong to the system of the mountains of Toledo. The continuation of the Sierra Morelia, which separates Algarves from the rest of Portugal, forms various small ranges and isolated mountains, such as the Serra do MaIhRo (1886 feet) and Monte Figo, and then closes with the Serra de Monchique (2963 feet) and runs into the sea in the steep cliffs of Cape St -Vincent.
The river-system of Portugal is also merely a portion of that of Spain. Its three most important rivers, the Douro, the Tagus, and the Guadiana, all rise in Spain and flow through that country ; but they all enter the sea in Portugal, and at the mouths of the Douro and the Tagus are situated the two most important cities of the kingdom, Oporto and Lisbon. The chief Portuguese tributaries of the Douro are the Tameja, the Tua, and the Sabor on the north, and the Agueda, the Coa, and the Paiva on the south ; of the Tagus, the Elja, the Ponsul, and the Zezere on the north, and the Niza, the Sorraya, and the Ca,nlia on the south ; while into the Guadiana, on its right or Port-uguese bank, flow the Caia, the Oeiras, and the Vascao. The other important rivers are the Minho, which forms the boundary of Portugal and Galicia in the lower part of its course, the Limia, the Cavado, the Vouga, and the Mondego to the north of the Tagus, and the Sado, the Mira, the Odelouca, and the Silves to the south of it. Important as are the rivers of Portugal, it has no inland lakes worthy of mention, though it abounds in hot and other medicinal springs, such as the Caldas de Monchique; and beautiful little mountain-lakes are numerous on the tops of the Serra da Estrella.
The climate of Portugal is particularly equable ancL temperate, and its salubrious qualities were recognized by the English doctors of the 18th century, who used to send many patients to winter there, including Fielding the novelist ; and, though Portugal has been superseded as a winter resort by the Riviera and Algiers, there are signs that it may again become a European health-resort of the first importance. To prove the temperate nature of the climate it is not enough to state that the average mean temperatures of Lisbon, Coimbra, and Oporto are 61°•3, 61°-1, and 60°.2 :Pahl% respectively ; inore instruct-ive is it to mention that the mean a,verage temperature for the month of January is only 50'2 at both Coimbra and Oporto, and for July only 69'1 and 70'3 for the same two cities, showing a difference between summer and winter of about 20°. This equability of temperature is partly caused by the very heavy rainfall which is pre-cipitated on Portugal as one of the most westerly king-doms of Europe and one most exposed to the Atlantic, and which has reached as much as 16 feet in a year ; but it is noticeable that this heavy rainfall comes down in gradual showers spread over the whole year, and not in the torrents of the tropics. This great humidity has its drawbacks as well as its advantages, for, though it makes the soil rich, it produces also heavy fogs, which render the Portuguese coast exceedingly dangerous to ships. This charming climate ancl equability of temperature are not, however, universal in Portugal ; they are to be enjoyed mainly in the highlands of Beira, Estreinadura, and in the northern provinces, especially a.t Cintra and Coimbra. In the deep valleys, even of those favoured provinces where the mountains keep off the cool winds, it is ex-cessively hot in summer ; while on the summits of the mountains snow lies for many months, and it is often extraordinarily cold. Even in Lisbon itself the tempera-ture, though its moan is only the same as that of Coimbra, varies from 38°1. in January to 90°-6 Fahr. in July, a difference of more than 50°. In Alemtejo the climate is very unfavourable, and, though the heat is not so great as in Algarves, the country presents a far more deserted and African appearance, while in winter, when heavy rains swell the Tagus and make it overflow its banks, damp unhealthy swamps are left, which breed malaria. Not-withstanding that Algarves is hotter than Alemtejo, and the climate there very sultry owing to the sea-breezes being intercepted by the Serra de Monchique and other mountains, a profuse vegetation takes a,way much of the tropical effect, so that it is a far shadier and more agree-able province than Alemtejo. Although such a rainy country, Portugal is very rarely visited by thunderstorms; but, on the other hand, shocks of earthquake are frequently felt, and recall the great earthquake of Lisbon in 1755.
The geology, flora, and fauna of Portugal are essentially the same as those of Spain, and will be studied under SPAIN (q.v.).
Population. - The population of Portugal, according to the census of 1st January 1878, was 4,160,315, and in 1881 it was calculated to be 4,306,554, or 125 persons to the square mile. The following is a table of the popula-tions of the different provinces and districts according to the census of 1878 and the official estimate of 1881: - According to the census of 1878 the following towns had a, population of more than 10,000 each : - Lisbon, 246,343; Oporto, 105,838; Braga, 19,755; Setubal, 14,798; Louie, 14,448; Coimbra, 13,369; Evora, 13,046; Tavira, 11,459; CovilhA, 10,809; Elvas, 10,471; PovCia de Varzim, 10,36'5; Ovar, 10,022.
The ethnological composition of the population is most mixed : in the two northern provinces the population is essentially Galician, but farther south the mixture be-comes obvious; not only did the conquering Portuguese largely intermarry with the Arabs, but in the places where they exterminated them they replaced them by coloniers of crusaders of all nations, chiefly French, English, Dutch, and Frisian, who have left their mark on the features and character of the nation, and they also largely intermarried with the Jews. No Jews were so wealthy or so cultivated as those of Portugal, who, though for many centuries keeping strictly apart from the Christians, yet after their forced conversion or expulsion by King Emmanuel largely intermarried, especially with the people of Lisbon. Farther south an African physiognomy appears, derived from the thousands of negro slaves imported to till Alemtejo and Algarves, from the days of Doni Henry till the decline of the Portuguese power.
Emigration is thinning the population, or rather keeping it from rapidly increasing ; and the following are the results of the statistics published by the Royal Geographical Society of Lisbon for 1872-81. There emIgrated. hi the ten years between 1871 and 1881 from Entre Minh° e Douro 51,581 persons, from Tras-os-Montes 7799, from Beira 31,437, from Estremadura 12,769, from Alemtejo 42, from Algarves 225, from the Azores 22,794, from Madeira 6410, making a grand total of 133,007. Of these emigrants 129,549 were bound for America, the whole number in all probability for the Brazils, Co/onies. - See AZORES, CAPE VERD ISLANDS, GOA, MACAO, ( MADEIRA, MOZAMBIQUE, and COLONY (V01. Vi. p. 161).
Commeree. - The commerce of Portugal has not rapidly, though ( it has steadily, increased dming the last thirty wears ; the chief countries with which it trades are, in order of value, England,and her colonies, Brazil, the United States, France, and Spain ; but it is hardly fair to mention commerce with Spain, because the large amount of smuggling 4hich takes place inakes it impossible to estimate the real amount of trade between the two countries. The following table of exports and imports in nineteen classes, compiled by Mr George Brackenbury, British consul at Lisbon, dated 24th April 1884, is published iu the Consular Reports for 1884, and contains the latest information on Portuguese trade and commerce. It will be noticed that the chief imports are bread-stuffs, metals, cottons, and minerals, and the chief exports fer-mented liquors, live stock (which is nearly all sent to England), and timber.
Agricultttre. - The state of agriculture in Portugal is still deplor- , able ; the wealth and energy of the country have been thrown into t the wine trade, and the production and cultivation of cereals have been so much neglected that, in spite of its being eminently adapted for such cultivation, nearly all its cereals are imported from the United States, to the value in 1883 of over £1,000,000. The wine production, on which Portugal has so long depended, was the work of the Methuen treaty of 1703, for it was not until after that treaty that the barren rocks of the Alto Douro were covered. with vines. But now, though the returns show slight alteration, there must soon be a great change. The phylloxera has utterly destroyed thousands of vineyards in Entre Minho e Douro and in Beira. The labours of the phylloxera commission seem unable to check its ravages ; 3 the commissioners themselves are hindered by the people, - an inspector having been even shot at in the district of Riguengo.4 The reason why no great alteration is to be perceived in the returns is that the great Oporto shippers hare such vast stocks that it may be years before the want comes to be felt. To remedy the failure, which can be only a matter of time, tobacco-growing has been proposed (see Consul Crawfurd's Report), and will probably be tried in place of vine-culture. Portugal has lately become a great exporter of live stock to England, as also of large quantities of fruits and early vegetables, including oranges (especially from Condeixa), lemons, limes, peaches (from Amarante), and the celebrated Elvas plums. The difference in the character of thc inhabitants of dif-ferent provinces is well shown by the fact that in the north the peasant not only tends his vines but in many instances rears silk-worms and even possesses olive trees, while in Alemtejo he is content to live upon chestnuts and to take care of his pigs and goats.
Manufactures. - Nothing proves more decidedly the agriculturali) character of the Portuguese than the repeated failures to establish f manufactures among them. This has often been ascribed to the provision respecting the importation of English goods in the Methuen treaty ; but not all the effort,s of Pombal or of the modern protectionist cabinets have been able to establish any important manufactures. The following table, extracted from Consul Bracken-bury's Report, gives a list of the chief establishments - for inanu Some of these establishments ought to be more successful, for the glass-works of Leiria, the lace-works of Vianna and Peniche, and the potteries of Aveiro had an immense reptation in the 18th century, which they have now lost, as the table clearly shows. Portugal possesses plenty of rnineral wealth, though not so much as Spain, but from want of capital and enterprise such resources as exist are neglected. A very few of the chief mines may be noted - the lead-mines of Coimbra, one of antimony near Oporto, and above all the very important copper-mines of San Domingos near Beja, worked by an English company-, which contributed thirteen-sixteenths of the total exports of minerals in the six months between January and June 1883. Of greater importance are the fisheries, - the fishermen both of Beira and Algarves being famous for their courage ; and large quantities of sardines and preserved tunny fish are exported to Italy and. France, and an even larger quantity of oysters to England.
Finance. - The revenue of Portugal has for many years ceased to balance its expenditure, and the deficit has had to be met by borrowing, but it is only fair to remark that vigorous attempts have been made to reduce the expenditure of recent years. The estimated revenue for 1883-84 and 1884-85 was classified under six heads.
The last item deserves particular notice, as it proves the confused manner in which Portuguese financiers keep their accounts ; they prefer to pay into their treasury interest on bonds held by it, instead of extinguishing that amount of the national debt.
Against this revenue must be set the expenditure (which always. exceeds it), causing a deficit of X194,141 on the ordinary balance-sheet, and of £1,558,142 when the extraordinary expenditure is taken into account, in 1884-85. The chief items in the estimates for that year compared with the estimates for 1888-84 are - Under the head of the "ministry of finance" there was an esti-mated SIllfl of £600,367 in 1883-84 and of £672,202 in 1884-85 for interest of debt, Nvhich in any other system of finance would hare been put down to the head of "public debt." The extraordinary expenditure was estimated to amount to £1,364,000 in 1884-85, the chief items of which were for the ministry of public works, chiefly spent 011 the fortifications of Lisbon, and for the minister of the colonies, for in only two colonies - Cape Yerd Islands and Macao - do the colonial revenues meet their expenditure, the mother-country having to afford substantial help to her African colonies every year. The estimated balance-sheet for 1884-85 was - Ordinary expenditure L7,179,934 Revenue 6,985,793 Deficit £1.94,141 It is very difficult to give any exact estimate of the extent of the public debt of Portugal owing to the financial confusions noted above, but on 30th June 1883 it was estimated at £96,175,692, namely-- Internal debt, new 3 per cents L52,369,291 External debt 43,372,530 Old debt, to be converted . ........ 433,871 Total .L96,175,692 but of this amount the treasury holds about £8,000,000.
Government. - The government of Portugal is an hereditary and constitutional monarchy, exercised under the charter of 1826, as modified in 1852 and 1878, under which the king is charged with the executive and shares the power of making laws with two chambers. His civil list amounts to £144,000 a year, and he is advised in all matters of administration and assisted in nominating peers by a council of state appointed for life, but depends for advice in legislative and executive matters on a cabinet of seven members selected from the chambers by a premier, summoned by the king. The lIouse of Peers consists of 150 members nominated by the king for life, and contains many of the most eminent professors and authors, as well as meu of wealth, and additions may be made to its mimber by the king on the advice of the premier, with the consent of the council of state. All the members of the Douse of Peers do not possess titles, D01' do all titled persons belong to the House of Peers; legislation and the titular and hereditary aristo-cracy are kept quite apart. The House of Deputies consists of 173 inernbers, elected directly by all male citizens of twenty-five years of age, either paying in direct taxes 4s. 6d. a year, or deriving an animal income of 22s. from real estate, while all graduates, priests, officers, and certified teachers have votes without further qualifica-tion. The president of the chamber is selected by the king out of five elected candidates, and the depnties are paid. The Azores and Madeira elect members to the House at Lisbon. For adminis-trative purposes Portugal is divided into seventeen districts, for judicial purposes into twenty -six districts or "comarcas," with appeal courts at Lisbon and Oporto, and a supreme court at Lis-bon, and for military purposes into four divisions. The Ronian Catholic is the state religion, -but others are tolerated, and the power of the priests has been greatly checked by the wholesale suppression of monasteries in 1834. The church in Portugal is governed by a patriarch at Lisbon, two archbishops at Braga and Evora, and fourteen bishops, of whom the most important is the bishop of Oporto. For purposes of local government the districts are under the rule of civil governors, who have much the same powers as prefects in France, while in the 292 " concellios," or administrative .councils, there are elected councillors, and in the 3960 "fregnezias" or parishes the villagers elect a magistrate, who has the same powers as an English jnstice of the peace.
years, of which 3 are to be with the colours, 5 in the first reserve, and 4 in the second reserve. The force is divided into 36 regiments of infantry, 10 regiments of cavalry, 4 regiments, 1 brigade, and 4 companies of artillery, and 1 regiment of engineers. In 1883, under the old regulations, the army contained 41 general officers ; its effective strength in time of peace was 33,231 men with 1643 officers, and on a war footing 75,336 men with 2688 officers. For colonial service there is one regiment of 1143 soldiers and .50 officers divided into 3 battalions, of which one is always stationed at Goa and another at Macao. The officers are trained in the military academy at Lisbon, and there is an asylum for the sons of soldiers. The navy is no longer the power it used to be, but, though small, it is equipped in modern fashion and furnished by the naval arsenal at Lisbon. It consisted in 1884 of 30 steam-ships, of which one was an armoured corvette mounting 7 guns, and 5 others cor-vettes mounting 46 guns, and of 14 sailing ships, of which one was a frigate mounting 19 guns. Its personnel consisted of 283 officers and 3235 sailors.
Public Instruction. - The public instruction of Portugal is regu-lated by the law of 1844, which enacted that all children should be bound to attend a primary school, if there was one within a mile, from the age of seven to fifteen, under penalty to the parents of a fine and deprivation of civil rights. Under this law there were in Portugal, in 1874, 2649 primary schools with 122,004 pupils of both sexes. Secondary education is not neglected, and under tbe same law of 1844 17 lycees have been established in the seven-teen continental districts, and from nein it is possible for a pupil to enter either the university of Coimbra, which during the present century has recovered some of its ancient lustre, or the special schools. These special schools are very ably conducted, and modern Portuguese policy gives, as we have seen, a higher status to teachers