PALENCIA, an inland province of Spain, one of the eight into which Old Castile is divided, is bounded on the N. by Santander, on the E. by Burgos, on the S. by Valladolid, on the W. by Valladolid and Leon, and has an area of 3127 square miles. In shape it is an irregular parallelogram, measuring 83 miles from north to south with a maximum breadth of 48 miles, sloping from the Cantabrian chain to the Douro. The general direction of all its larger streams is from north to south ; of these the principal are the Pisuerga and the Carrion, which unite at Duenas and flow into the Douro in Valladolid. The tributaries of the former within the province are the Burejo, the Cieza, and the united streams of the Buedo and Abanades ; the latter is joined on the right by the Cueza. The northern part of the province, including the whole partido of Cervera, is mountainous, with some wood and with good pasture in the valleys ; the remainder, the " Tierra de Campos," belongs to the great Castilian table-land, and is in general level and almost wholly devoid of trees. In the south occurs a considerable marsh or lake known as La Laguna de la Nava, as yet only partially drained. The mountainous district abounds in minerals, but only the coal is worked, the principal mines being those of San Feliceo de Castilleria, Orbo, and Villaverde de la Pena. The province is crossed in the south-east by the trunk railway connecting Madrid with 'run, while the line to Santander traverses it throughout from north to south ; there is also railway connexion with Leon. The highways following the same routes are maintained in good order ; the state of the other roads is often bad. I The Canal de Castilla, begun by Ensenada in 1753, and completed in 1832, connects Alar del Rey with Valladolid. The province is essentially agricultural, wheat and other cereals, legumes, hemp, and flax being everywhere extensively grown, except in the mountainous districts. Other industries are of secondary importance, the principal being flour-milling and the manufacture of linen and woollen stuffs. The province is divided into seven partidos - Astudillo, Baltanas, Carrion, Freehilla, Palencia, Saldafla, and Cervera ; the total population in 1877 was 180,785. The only ayuntamiento with a population exceeding 10,000 was that of Palencia.