Pas De Calais
tons department boulogne miles west
PAS DE CALAIS, a maritime department of northern France, formed in 1790 of nearly the whole of Artois and the northern maritime portion of Picardy, including the Boulonnais, Calaisis, Ardresis, and the districts of Langle and Bredenarde, lies between 50° 2' and 51° N. lat. and r 35' and 3° 10' E. long., and is bounded N. by the Straits of Dover (" Pas de Calais"), E. by the department of Nord, S. by that of Somme, and W. by the English Channel. The distance from England is only 21 miles. Nord, which separates Pas de Calais from Belgium, is at one place only 3 miles wide, and from Arras (the chief town) to Paris in a direct line is about 100 miles. Except in the neighbourhood of Boulogne, with its cotes de fer or " iron coasts," the seaboard of the department, which measures 65 miles, consists of dunes. From the mouth of the Aa (the limit towards Nord) it trends west-south-west to Cris Nez, the point of France nearest to England ; in this section lie the port of Calais, Cape Blanc Nez, rising 440 feet above the sandy shores, and the port of Wissant (Wishant). Beyond Gris Nez the direction is due south ; in this section are the port of Ambleteuse, Boulogne at the mouth of the Llano, and the two bays formed by the estua,ries of the Canche and the Authie (the limit towards Somme). The highest point in the department (700 feet) is in the west, between 13oulogne and St Omer. From the uplands in which it is situated the, Lys and Scarpe ilow ca,st to the Scheldt, the Aa north to the German Ocean, and the Slack, Winie,reux, arid Liane to the Channel. Farther south are the valleys of the Canche and the Authie, running from east-south-east to west-north-west, and thus parallel with the Somme. Vast plains, open and monotonous, but extremely fertile and well culti-vated, occupy most of the department. The greenest and most picturesque valleys are in the west. To the north of the hills running between St Omer and Boulogne, to the south of Gravelines and the south-east of Calais, lies the district of the Wattergands, fens now drained by means of canals and dykes, and turned into highly productive land. The climate is free from extremes of heat and cold, but damp and changeable. At Arras the mean annual tem-perature is 47° ; on the coast it is higher. The rainfall in the one case is 22 inches, in the other 31.
With a total area of 2550 square miles, the department has 1899 square miles (more than two-thirds) of arable land, while woods and pasture land each occupy only about a twentieth. The live stock in 1880 comprised 76,224 horses, 9642 a.sses or mules, 1.56,060 cows, 35,272 calves, 5080 bulls or oxen, 256,031 sheep, 131,722 pigs, 26,760 goats. The sheep in 1880 yielded 857 tons of wool, worth £57,398. The national sheepfolds of Tingry are in Pas de Calais. The 22,260 beehives of the department yielded in 1878 1753 tons of honey and 39A tons of wax. No department except Somme breeds fowls so extensively. Wheat, beetroot, and oil seeds are the principal crops. In 1882 wheat gave 9,855,483 bushels, meslin 920,023 bushels ; in 1879, rye 781,150 bushels, barley 2,362,133 bushels, oats 9,421,818 bushels, beetroot 1,576,355 tons (almost entirely consumed by the sugar works), potatoes 7,250,813 bushels, vegetables 581,727, and colza seed 30,263. Besides there were considerable quantities of poppy-seed, flax (of excellent quality), hops, hemp, and tobacco (1275 tons). There are two great coal-fields, that of Pas de Calais proper, a continuation of the coal-field of Valenciennes and Hainault, and that of 13oulonnais. The former contains a total area of 134,270 acres ; the latter is about a tenth of that size. Taken together they number 72 pits, 57 of which are active. In 1882 5,036,455 tons of coal were extracted and 1,378,818 consumed in the department ; the industry gives employment to 22,925 persons. Peat (to the amount of 375,034 tons in 1882) is obtained in the valleys of the Searpe and the Aa. Iron-mines in the arrondissement of Boulogne employ 162 workmen (26,674 tons) ; the stone and marble quarries 2130 workmen ; and about 800 are engaged in obtaining phosphates of lime (295,566 tons), which are exported for manure. Blast furnaces, foundries, engineering works, naileries, boiler.works, a,grieultural implement factories, and steel-pen works are all cairied on in the department. In 1883 305 tons of iron, 16,355 tons of steel, 65,025 tons of cast iron were manu-factured ; and the average production of pens is 400,000,000 per annum. The establishments at Biache St Vaast melt, refine, and roll copper and zinc, and also work lead and auriferous silver. The ship-yards do not launch any large vessels, but in 1881 they built eighty huggers or sloops, with an aggregate burden of 2456 tons. The eighty-nine sugar-works in 1880 produced 42,121 tons of sugar and 29,730 of molasses ; the distilleries 4,658,984 gallons of spirits ; tl.e oil works 15 tons of hempseed oil, 389 tons of linseed oil, 3066 tons of poppyseed, rapeseed, and cameline oil, 3:e., and 797 tons of colza oil. There are 553 breweries in the dei)artinent. Cotton-spinning and weaving employ 116,364 spindles and 625 looms ; wool-spinning 26,300 spindles ; and the flax, hemp, and jute manufactui e 35,700 spindles and 497 looms. St Pierre-les-Calais carries on the weaving of tulles in linen, cotton, and silk, employing 10,000 hands, and producing with its 1506 looms goods to the value of £2,400,0 0 per annum. There are besides in the department establishments for the manufacture of paper and cardboard, hosiery, embroidery, boots and shoes (for exportation), flooring, pipes, glass wares, chemical products, pottery, chicory, starch, biscuits (300 to 400 workmen), and gin. The national powder-mills of Esquerdes are among the largest in France. The port towns fit out a considerable number of vessels for the mackerel, cod, and herring fishing - a growing industry. In 1SS2 Boulogne and Etaples liad 340 boats (13,919 tons) and 4586 fishermen, and Calais 37 boats (265 tons) and 281 fishermen, and their united take was 2356 tons. There is a large export of sugar, spirits, calves, sheep, and eggs to England. In 1.882 the port of Boulogne had a movement of 3614 vessels and that of Calais 4436, with a total burden for the two ports of 2,212,920 tons. 1878 404,769 trarellers passed by this way between France and England. Calais is emphatically a transit port ; Boulogne has besides an export trade in local products such as marble, freestone, minerals, and Boulogne horses, remarkable for size and strength. The roads of tho department (national, depart-inental, ke.) make a length of 9393 miles, the V■ aterways 1051 the railways 546 nines, and the industrial railways 60 miles. The canal system comprises part of the Aa, the Lys, the Searpe, the Deule ti ibutary of the Lys passing by Lille), the Lawe (a tribu-tary of the Lys passing by Bethune), and the Sensee (an affluent of the Scheldt), as well as the various canals proper from Aire to La Bassee, Neuffosse, Calais, ke., and in this way a line of communi-cation is formed from the Scheldt to the sea by Bethune, St Omer, and Calais, with branches to Gravelines and Dunkirk in Nord. The total tonnage of the whole inland navigation was 2,124,442 tons in 1878.
In 1881 Pas de Calais had 819,022 inhabitants (311 per square mile), ranking sixth among the departments in density of popu-lation. It forms the diocese of Arras in the archbishopric of Cambrai, belongs to the district of the first (or Lille) corps d'art/16e, and is within the jmisdiction of the Douai court of appeal. There are six arrondissements bearing the names of their chief towns - Arras (27,041 inhabitants), Bethune (10,374), Boulogne (44,842), Montreuil (3352), St Omer (20,479), and St Pol (3694). Other places of importance are St Pierre-les-Calais (30,786 inhabitants), the industrial town of Calais (13,529), Lens (10,515), Lievin (8281), Caryl!' (6430) - the last three with important coal-mines, and Aire (5000), formerly a fortified place.