dialogue life greek philosophers philosophy style plato satire truth time
LUCIAN, one of the principal essay-writers (Xoyorcicbot) and satirists of the post-Christian era, the silver age of Greek literature, was born at Samosata on the Euphrates in northern Syria.1 We have no indication of the precise date of his birth, but it is probable that he flourished about or after the middle of the 2d century, as he mentions Marcus Aurelius and his war with the German Marcomanni and Quadi (170-74 A.D.) in his Alexander (§ 43). He tells us in the Somnium or Vita Luciani, § 1, that his means being small he was at first apprenticed to his maternal uncle, a statuary, or rather sculptor of the stone pillars called Hermm.2 When a schoolboy he had been in the habit of scraping the wax from his tablets and using it for moulding or modelling little figures of dogs, horses, or men.3 Having made an unlucky beginning by breaking a marble slab, and having been well beaten for it, he absconded and returned home. Here he had a dream or vision of two women, representing Statuary and Literature. Both plead their cause at length, setting forth the advantages and the prospects of their respective professions ; but the youth chooses Hat8cia, and decides to pursue learning. For some time he seems to have made money as a krwp, following the example of Demosthenes, on whose merits and patriotism he expatiates in the dialogue Demosthenis Encomium. It is clear from his numerous writings that he was very familiar With the rival schools of philosophy, and he must have well studied their teachings ; but he lashes them all alike, the Cynics, perhaps, being the chief object of his derision.4 A large number of philosophers, both ancient and contemporary, are mentioned by name, nearly always in ridicule or disparagement. Lucian was not only a sceptic ; he was a scoffer and a downright unbeliever. He felt that men's actions and conduct always fall far short of their professions, and therefore he concluded that the professions themselves were worthless, and a mere guise to secure popularity or respect. Of Christianity he shows some knowledge, and it must have been somewhat largely professed in Syria at the close of the 2d century.8 In the Phi/opatTis, though the dialogue so called is generally regarded as spurious, thete is a statement of the doctrine of the Trinity,3 and the " Galikean who had ascended to the third heaven " (j12), and " renewed " (avExavto-cv) by the waters of baptism, may possibly allude to St Paul. The doctrines of the AO-yos and the "Light of the world," and that God is in heaven making a record of the good and bad actions of men,7 seem to have come from the same source, though the notion of a written catalogue of human actions to be used in judgment was familiar to /Eschylus and Euripides.
As a satirist and a wit Lucian stands without a rival. In these respects he may be said to occupy in prose literature the unique position which A ristophane:s holds in Greek poetry. But whether he is a mere satirist, who laughs while he lashes, or a misanthrope, who hates while he derides, is not very clear. In favour of the former view it may be said that the two main objects of his ridicule are mythology and the sects of philosophy ; in favour of the latter, his bitter exposure of imposture and chicanery in the Alexander, and the very severe attacks he makes on the "humbug" of philosophy,8 which he everywhere assails with the most acrimonious and contemptuous epithets.
As a writer Lucian is fluent, easy, and unaffected, and a close follower of the best Attic models, such as Plato and the orators. His style is simpler than Plutarch's, and some of his compositions, especially the Dialogues of the Gods (pp. 204-287) and of the ilf:trine Deities (288-327), and, above all, the Dialogues of the Dead (329-454), are models of witty, polished, and accurate Greek composition. Not less clever, though rather lax in morality, are the &cupth-ol Sicaort (pp. 280-325), which remind us somewhat of the letters of Alciphron. The sarcasms on the popular mythology, the conversations of Pluto, Hermes, Charon, and others of the powers in Hades, show a positive disbelief of any future state of existence. The model Lucian followed in these dialogues, as well in the style as in the sparkling and playful repartee, was the Platonic conversations, founded on the drama, of which the dialogue may be called the prose representative. Aristotle never adopted it, perhaps regarding it as beneath the true dignity of philosophy. The dialogue, in fact, was revived and improved by Lucian,° the old traditions of the Xormotoi and Acryoypc40c, and above all, the immense influence of rhetoric as an art, having thrown some discredit on a style of composition which, as introduced by Plato, had formed quite a new era in Greek prose composition. For rhetoric loved to talk, expatiate, and declaim, while dialectic strove to refute by the employment of question and answer, often in the briefest form.
In his language, as tested by the best classical models, Lucian is at once elegant and correct. But he occasionally indulges in idioms slightly solecistic, as in the use of Kay (Kai av) with a future or even an imperative, /A in place of 0-6, the particle Av misplaced or wrongly added, and a subjunctive mood instead of an optative.' Nevertheless, he evinces a perfect mastery over a language as wonderful in its inflexions as in its immense and varied vocabulary ; and it is a well-merited praise of the author to say that to a good Greek scholar the pages of Lucian are almost as e lsy and as entertaining as an English or French novel. In this respect they form a contrast with the somewhat " crabbed " style of Plutarch, many of whose moral treatises ar3 by no means easy reading.
Of course Greek, like eery other language, is progressive, and the notion of fixing it to any given period as absolutely the best is quite arbitrary. We shall not be surprised at finding in Lucian some forms and compounds which were not in use in the time of Plato or Demosthenes. Thus, Ile has 757rEpaccs. for 117rEpOpqg (p. 99), 71-orejui.avos as the participle of the perfect passive of .7744.rw (p. 240), ?1,0-0-EcKE the perfect of 6,0-EL) (p. 705), to which a purist would object; and there are occasional tendencies to Latinism which can hardly surprise us. From a writer living under Roman rule we may expect. some Latin words in his vocabulary, as .I;axp80)3 for Sacerdos, and Roman names like Mclros, KEXo-(13, KArip (Ceder), `PoinaWavos, tic. In the Lexiphanes a long passage is read from a treatise composed in words of the strangest and most out-of-the-way form and sound, on hearing which Lucian pretends to be almost driven crazy (p. 342). His own sentiments on the propriety of diction are shown by his reproof to Lexiphanes (§ 24), " if anywhere you have picked up an out-of-the-way word, or coined one which you think good, you labour to adapt the sense of it, and think it a loss if you do not succeed in dragging it in somewhere, even when it is not really wanted." The free use of such a vocabulary 2 even in satire shows Lucian's intimate knowledge of the spurious bombast which had begun to corrupt the classic dialect.
Lucian founded his style, or obtained his fluency, from the successful study of rhetoric, by which he appears to have made a good income from composing speeches which attracted much attention.3 At a later period in life he seems to have held a lucrative office in Egypt. When he "all but bad one foot in Charon's boat" (he says in Apologia, § 1), "he lent his neck to be bound by a golden collar." This office was to register the actions and verdicts of the law courts,--he was a kind of " Master of the Rolls," who had the custody of the state documents, and received his salary directly from the king (ibid., § 12). He speaks of the emoluments as oh CrytKpOS µw-Ok DM", voXvi-caavTos. We'd° not know the date of Lucian's death, but he may have lived till about 200 A.D.
The extant works of this writer are so numerous that of some of the principal only a short sketch can be given. To understand them aright we must remember that the whole moral code, the entire "duty of man," was included, in the estimation of the pagan Greek, in the various schools of philosophy. As these were generally rivals, and the systems they taught were more or less directly antagonistic, truth presented itself to the inquirer, not as one, but as manifold. The absurdity and the impossibility of this forms the burden of all Lucian's writings. He could only form one conclusion, viz., that there is no such a thing as truth.
One of the best written and most amusing treatises of antiquity is Lucian's True History, which forms a rather long narrative in two books. It is composed, he says in a brief introduction, not only as a pastime and a diversion from severer studies, but avowedly as a satire (ohK dxwi.tv&rjrws, p. 71) on the poets and logographers who have written so many marvellous tales, 7roXVE rcpda-rta Kai p. He names Ctesias and Homer ; but Hellanieus and Herodotus, perhaps other Xoyoroca, still earlier, appear to have been in his mind.4 The only true statement in his History, lie wittily says (p. 72), is that it contains nothing but lies from beginning to end.
The main purport of the story is to describe a voyage to the moon. He set out, he tells us, with fifty companions, in a well-provisioned ship, from the " Pillars of Hercules," intending to explore the western ocean. After eighty days rough sailing they came to an island on which they found a Greek inscription, " This was the limit of the expedition of Heracles and Dionysus"; and the visit of the wine-god seemed attested by some miracnlons vines which they found there. After leaving the island they were suddenly carried up, ship and all, by a whirlwind into the air, and on the eighth day came in sight of a great round island shinind• with a bright light (p. 77), and lying a little above the moon. In a short time they are arrested by a troop of gigantic " horse-vultures " (hrrOyurot), and brought as captives to the "man in the moon," who proves to be Endymion. He is engaged in a war with the inhabitants of the MID, which is ruled by King Phaethon, the quarrel having arisen from an attempt to colonize the planet Venus (Lucifer). The voyagers are enlisted as " Moonites," and a long description follows of the monsters and flying dragons engaged in the contest. A fight ensues, in which the slaughter is so great that the very clouds are tinged with red (p. 84). The long description of the inhabitants of the moon is extremely droll and original, and has often been more or less closely imitated. After descending safely into the sea, the ship is swallowed by a huge "sea serpent" more than 100 miles long. The adventures during the long confinement in the creature's belly are most amusing; but at last they sail out through the chinks between the monster's teeth, and soon find themselves at the " Fortunate Islands." Here they meet with the spirits of heroes arid philosophers of antiquity, on whom the author expatiates at some length. The tale comes to an abrupt end with an allusion to Herodotus in the promise that he "will tell the rest in his next books." The story throughout is written in easy and elegant Greek, and shows the most fertile invention.
Another curious and rather long treatise is entitled Aol5Kcos1) Ovos. The authorship is regarded as doubtful; the style, as it seems to us, does not betray another hand. Parts of the story are coarse enough ; the point turns on one Lucius visiting in a Thessalian family, in which the lady of the house was a sorceress. Having seen her changed into a bird by anointing herself with some potent drug, he resolves to try a similar experiment on himself, but finds that he has become an ass, retaining, however, his human senses and memory. The mistake arose from his having filched the wrong ointment ; however, he is assured by the attendant, Palstra, that if be can but procure roses to eat, his natural form will be restored. In the night a party of bandits break into the house and carry off the stolen goods into the mountains on the back of the unfortunate donkey, who gets well beaten for stumbling on the rough road. Seeing, as he fancies, some roses in a garden, he goes in quest of them, and again gets beaten as a thief by the gardener (p. 585). After many adventures with the bandits, he attempts to run away, but is caught. A council is held, and he is condemned to die along with a captive girl who had essayed to escape on his back. Suddenly, however, soldiers appear, and the bandits are arrested (p. 595). Again the ass escapes " to the great and pop;lous city of Berma in Macedonia" (p. 603). Here he is sold to a strolling conjurer, afterwards to a market-gardener; and both experiences are alike painful. Again he passes into the possession of a cook, where lie gets fat and sleek on food more suited to his concealed humanity than the hard fare he has of bite lived upon (p. 614). At last, during an exhibition in the theatre, he sees some roses hieing carried past, and, making a successful rush to devour them, he recovers his former shape. "I am Lucius," he 'exclaims to the wondering president of the exhibition, "and my brother's name is Caius. It was a Thessalian witch that changed me into a donkey." Thus all ends well, and he returns safe to his country. Droll and graphic as many of the adventures are, they but to clearly show the profligate morals of the age.
The treatise On the Syrian Goddess (Mylitta, the moon-goddess, the Semitic Venus) is written in the Ionic dialect in imitation perhaps of the style of Herodotus, though the resemblance is by no means close. The writer professes to be an Assyrian (p. 452), and to describe the wonders in the various temples of Palestine and Syria ; lie descants on the eunuchs of Syria and the origin of the self-imposed privation of manhood professed and practised by the Galli. The account of the temples, altars, and sacrifices is curious, if really authentic ; after the manner of Pausanias it is little more than a list, with the reasons in most cases added, or the origin of the custom explained.
De .iforte Peregrioi is a narrative of one Proteus, Cynic, who after professing various doctrines, and among them those of Christianity, ended his own life by ascending a burning pyre (p. 357).1 The founder of the Christian religion is described (p. 334) as "the man who had been crucified (or fixed to a stake, avao-KoXo7rto-06ra) in Palestine," and as one "still worshipped for having introduced a new code of morals into life." The zeal of the early converts is shown by their flocking to the prison when Proteus had been arrested, by the sympathy conveyed from distant cities of Asia (p. 336), by contributions of money for his support, and by their total indifference to life ; for "the poor wretches have persuaded themselves that they will live for ever." The founder of the religion, "that first lawgiver of theirs," says Lucian, t' made them believe that they are all brothers when once they have abjured the gods of Greece and worshipped the crucified man who is their teacher, and have begun to live according to his laws" (p. 337).
Pis accusatus is a dialogue commencing with a satire on the folly of the popular notion that the gods alone are happy. Zeus is represented as disproving this by enumerating the many and heavy duties that fall to their lot in the government of the world, and Hermes remarks on the vast crowds of philosophers of rival sects, by whose influence the respect and worship formerly paid to the gods have seriously declined. A trial is supposed to be held under the presidency of the goddess Aimi, between the Academy, the Porch, the schools of the Cynics and Epicureans, and Pleasure, Revelry, Virtue, Luxury, ,Src., as variously impugned or defended by them. Then Conversa tion and Rhetoric come before the court, each having an action for defamation to bring against Syrus the essayist, who of course is Lucian himself (p. 823). his defence is beard against the charges of both, and in both cases he is triumphantly acquitted. This essay is brilliant from its clever parodies of Plato and Demosthenes, and the satire on the Socratic method of arguing by short questions and answers.
The Lover of Lying (43aXotif€1',877s) discusses the reason why some persons seem to take pleasure in falsehood for its own sake, and when there is nothing to be gained by it. Under the category of lying all mythology (e.g., that of Homer and Hesiod) is included, and the question is asked, why the hearers of such stories are amused by them I Quack remedies, charms, and miraculous cures are included among the most popular kinds of falsehood ; witchcraft, spiritualism, exorcism, expulsion of devils, spectres, are discussed in turn, and a good ghost story is told in p, 57. An anecdote is given of Democritus, who, to show his disbelief in ghosts, had shut himself up in a tomb, and when some young men, dressed up with death's beads, came to frighten him at night, and suddenly appeared to him while he was engaged in writing, he did not even look up, but called out to them, "Stop your joking" (p. 59). This treatise, a very interesting one, concludes with the reflexion that truth and sound reason are the only remedies fur vain and superstitious terrors.
The dialogue Navigium sea Vota (HXoIov 77 sAa) gives an apparently authentic account of the measurements and fittings of an Egyptian ship which has arrived with a cargo of corn at the Pirceus, driven out of its course to Italy by adverse winds. The full length is 180 feet, the breadth nearly 50, the depth from deck to the bottom of the hold 43 feet. The " wishes" turn on a party of friends, who have been to see the ship, declaring what they would most desire to possess. One would have the ship filled with gold, another a fine house with gold plate ; a third would be a "tyrant " with a large force devoted to his interests; a fourth would like to make himself invisible, enter any house that he pleased, and be transported through the air to the objects of his affection. After bearing them all, the first speaker, Lycinus (Lucian), says that he is content with the privilege of laughing heartily at the vanity of human wishes, especially when they are those of professed philosophers.
The dialogue between Philo and Lycinus, Conviviwn srzc Lapithw, is a very amusing description of a banquet., at which a party of dignified philosophers quarrelled over their viands at a marriage feast, and came to blows. The style is a good imitation of Plato, and the scene reminds one of the " clients' dinner" in the fifth satire of Juvenal. One of the party is so irritated by taunts that he flings a goblet half full of wine at the head of another, who retorts by spitting in the face of the aggressor (p. 441). Matters come to a climax by the attempt of one of the guests, Zenothemis, to secure for himself a fatter fowl which had been served to his next neighbour Hermon. Each seizes his bird and hits the other with it in the face, at the same time pulling his beard. Then a general fight ensues, and serious wounds are inflicted. The story is, of course, a satire on philosophy, the favourite topic of a writer who believed neither in gods nor in men.
The Piscator, a dialogue between Lucian, Socrates, Pythagoras, Empedocles, Plato, and others, commences with a general attack on the author as the enemy of philosophy. Socrates propases that the culprit should be tried, and that Philosophia should assist in the prosecution. Lucian declares that he does not know where such a person lives, long as he has been looking for her (§ 11). She is found at last, but declares Lucian has never disparaged her, but only impostors and pretenders tinder her name (§ 15). Ile makes a long defence (pp. 598-606), abusing the philosophers in the sort of language in which some schools of theologians abuse the monks of the Middle Ages (§ 34). The trial is held in the Acropolis of Athens, and the sham philosophers, dreading a verdict against them, throw themselves from the rock. A Cynic flings away his scrip in the hurry, and on examination it is found to contain, not books or loaves of bread, but gold coins, dice, and fragrant essences (§ 44). The title of Fisherman is given to this witty treatise, because at the end Lucian baits his hook with a fig and a gold coin, and catches gluttonous strollers in the city while seated on the wall of the Acropolis.
The Voyage Home (Kary'orAovs) opens with the complaint that Charon's boat is kept waiting for Hermes, who soon appears with his troop of ghosts to be ferried over the infernal river. Among them is a ripavvos, one Megapenthes, who, as his name is intended to express, mourns greatly over the life he has just left. Amusing appeals are made by other souls for leave to return to life, and even bribes are offered to the presiding goddess of destiny, but Clotho is, of course, inexorable. The moral of the piece is closely like that of the parable of Dives and Lazarus : the rich and prosperous bewail their fate, while the poor and afflicted find rest from their troubles, and have no desire to return to them. The ri,pavvos here is the man clothed in purple and fine linen, and Lucian shows the same bitter dislike of tyrants which Plato and the tragic writers display. The heavy penalty is adjudged to Megapenthes that he may ever remember in the other world the misdeeds done in life.
The Sale of Lives is an auction held by Zeus to see what price the lives of philosophers of the rival sects will bring. A Pythagorean, who speaks in the Ionic, first undergoes an examination as to what he can teach, and this contains an enumeration of the doctrines usually ascribed to that sect, including metempsychosis. He is valued at 7s. 6d., and is succeeded by Diogenes, who avows himself the champion of truth, a cosmopolitan (§ 8), and the enemy of pleasure. Socrates brings two talents, and is purchased by Dion, tyrant of Syracuse (§ 19). Chrysippus, who gives some specimens of his clever quibbles,1 is bought for fifty pounds, Aristotle for nearly a hundred, while Pyrrho the sceptic (or one of his school), who professes to "know nothing," brings four pounds, "because he is dull and stupid and has no more sense than a grub" (§ 27). But the man raises a doubt, " whether or not he has really been bought," and refuses to go with the purchaser till he has fully considered the matter.
Thrum is a very amusing and witty dialogue. The misanthrope, once wealthy, has become a poor farm-labourer, and reproaches Zeus for his indifference to the injustice of man. Zeus declares that the noisy disputes in Attica have so disgusted him that he has not been there for a long time (§ 9). He tells Hermes to conduct Plutus to visit Timon, and see what can be done to help him. Pintas, who at first refuses to go, is persuaded after a long conversation with Hermes, and Timon is found by them digging in his field (§ 31). Poverty is unwilling to resign her votary to wealth ; and Timon himself, who has become a thorough misanthrope, objects to be made rich again, and is with difficulty persuaded to turn up with his mattock a crock of gold coins. Now that he has once more become rich, his former flatterers, who had long left him, come cringing with their congratulations and respects, but they are all driven off with broken heads or pelted with stones. Between this dialogue and the Plutus of Aristophanes there are many close resemblances.
Ilermotimus (pp. 739-831) is one of the longer dialogues, Hermotimus, a student of the Stoic philosophy fur twenty years (§ 2), and Lucian (Lycinus) being the interlocutors. The long time - forty years at the least - required for climbing up to the temple of virtue and happiness, and the short span of life, if any, left for the enjoyment of it, are discussed. That the greatest philosophers do not always attain perfect indifference, the Stoic ultimatum, is shown by the anecdote of one who dragged his pupil into court to make him pay his fee (§ 9), and again by a violent quarrel with another at a banquet (§ 11). Virtue is compared to a city with just, and good, and contented inhabitants ; but so many offer themselves as guides to the right road to virtue that the inquirer is bewildered (§ 26). What is truth, and who are the right teachers of it, still remains undetermined. The question is argued at length, and illustrated by a peculiar custom of watching the pairs of athletes and setting aside the reserved combatant (n-dpeSpos) at the Olympian games by the marks on. the ballots (§§ 40-43). This, it is argued, cannot be done till all the ballots have been examined ; so a man cannot select the right way till he has tried all the ways to virtue. But to know the doctrines of all the sects is impossible in the term of a life (§ 49). To take a taste of each, like trying a sample of wine, will not do, because the doctrines taught are not, like the crock of wine, the same throughout, but vary or advance day by day (§ 59). A suggestion is made (§ 68) that the searcher after truth should begin by taking lessons in the science of discrimination, so as to be a good judge of truth before testing the rival claims. But who is a good teacher of such a science 1 (§ 70). The general conclusion of this well-argued inquiry is that philosophy is not worth the pursuit. " If I ever again," says Hermotimus, "meet a philosopher on the road, I will shun him as I would a mad dog."
The Alexander or False Prophet is a severe exposure of a clever rogue who seems to have incurred the personal enmity of Lucian (pp. 208-265). Born at Abonoteichus in Bithynia, a town on the southern shore of the Euxine, he is denounced as having filled all the Roman province of Asia with his villainy and plundering. Handsome, clever, and unprincipled, he had been instructed in the arts of imposture by one of the disciples of Apollonius of Tyana. Trusting to the natural credulity of Asiatics (§ 9), he sets up an oracle in his native town, having buried some brazen tablets which pretended that ./Esculapius would be worshipped in a temple there. A long account is given of the frauds and deceptions of this pretended hierophant, and the narrative ends with his treacherous attempt to drown Lucian off the coast of Amastris by a secret order given to the pilot, - a design which was frustrated by the honesty of the man (§ 56).
The Anacharsis is a dialogue between Solon and the Scythian philosopher, who has come to Athens on purpose to learn the nature of the Greek institutions. Seeing the young men performing athletic exercises in the Lyceum, he expresses his surprise at such a waste of energy and the endurance of so much useless pain. This gives Socrates an opportunity of descanting at length on training as a discipline, and emulation as a motive for excelling. Love of glory, Solon says, is one of the chief goods in life. The argument is rather ingenious and well put ; the style reminds us of the minor essays of Xenophon.
In all, one hundred and twenty-four extant treatises of Lucian (excluding about fifty epigrams and two iambic poems of no great merit) are considered genuine. We have given a brief account of some of the longest and best, but many others, e.g., P7'0112elheus, Menippus, Life of Dentonax, Toxaris, Zeus Tragredas, The Dream or the Code, learomenippus (an amusing satire on the physical philosophers), are of considerable literary value. The excellent edition of C. Jacobitz, in the Tenbner series, which is furnished with a very complete index, places the text in the student's hand in a much more satisfactory state than has yet fallen to the lot of Plutarch in his Opera Moralia. (F. A. P.)