Man, Isle Of
island earl king tons douglas peel england castletown manx government
MAN, ISLE OF, a dominion of the crown of England, situated in the Irish Sea, almost equidistant from England on the east, Scotland on the north, and Ireland on the west. It lies between 54° 2' and 51° 25' N. lat., and between 4° 18' and 4° 50' W. long., Douglas on the east coast of the island being distant 58 miles west-north-west from Fleetwood, while Peel on the west coast is 65 miles south-east of Belfast. The greatest length of the island is about 33 miles, and its greatest breadth about 12 miles. The total area is 145,325 acres, or about 227 square miles.
feet; at Brada Head, near which Brada Hill forms au almost precipitous wall over 700 feet in height ; at Calf Islet, surrounded by rugged broken rocks ; and at Spanish Head (said to take its name from the destruction which there overtook a portion of the Spanish Armada). Towards the south-eastern shore the mountains slope more gradually towards the sea, the coast of which is generally low and sandy, being indented by several finely rounded bays, including Castletown Bay and Derby Haven. From Derby Haven to Maughold Point the coast is frequently bold and rocky, and the numerous creeks and bays, the largest of which are Douglas Bay and Laxey Bay, greatly add to the charm and variety of the scenery. From Maughold Head round to Peel the coast presents little of special interest, being formed in great part of sand and gravel cliffs, although along the western side the bold clay-slate formamation again appears.
The largest river in the island is the Sulby, which rises near Snaefell, and, after flowing northwards through a rugged glen to Sulby village, winds eastwards through a level and well-cultivated country to the sea at Ramsey. The Neb or Great River, which is. formed by the junction near Slieuwhallin of a stream rising near South Barrule and flowing north by the Foxdale Glen, and of another flowing south from Sartfell by Rhenass, passes west to the Irish Sea at Peel. The Silverburn flows southwards from South Barrule to the Castletown Bay. The Dhu and Glass flowing eastwards unite before entering the sea at Douglas, which takes its name from their union. The streams abound with trout, and fishing is generally permitted without restriction. There are no lakes.
Geology. - The greater part of the island is formed of slaty Silurian rocks of identical formation with the mountainous regions of Cumberland and Westmoreland. No characteristic fossils, however, exist to determine their exact age except one, Pulxochorda major, found in the Skiddaw slates. The line of strike is from south-west to north-east, and the strata are highly inclined. The mountains for the most part present a smooth rounded appearance, superinduced by prolonged subaerial waste. The clay-slate formation is sometimes broken through by intrusions of granite and other eruptive rocks. The " greenstones " are especially visible at Brada Head, Castletown, Langness, and other points along the coast. A large mass of granite, containing silvery mica, red and white felspar, and gray quartz, rests on the eastern slope of South Barrule mountain, and valuable masses of the same rock appear at the Dhoon river to the north-east of the Laxey lead-mines. Upper Old Red Sandstone and conglomerate occur at Peel on the west coast, and on the south coast, in the neighbourhood of Castletown Bay, chiefly at the peninsula of Langness. It rests on the upturned edges of the slates, and passes imperceptibly into the beds of limestone. The Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone is the only representative of the Carboniferous strata in the island. The limestone contains numerous fossils. At Poolvash it assumes the character of black marble, which is much used for chimneypieces. At Scarlet Point, and thence to Poolvash, interesting evidence exists of volcanic eruptions during the accumulation of the Carboniferous rocks. A great blank in the geological record occurs at the top of the limestone series, for the next strata that appear are the clays and gravels of the Glacial period. These strata occupy the greater portion of the low ground of the island, and consist of boulder clay, drift gravel, and sands. They occasionally reach as far up the mountains as 500 feet, and in the southern districts erratic boulders are sometimes to be observed on the very highest summits. Boulders of granite, for example, have been carried across South Barrule 1E11 (1585 feet) and dropped on the top of Crook-ny-Irree-Lhaa (1449 feet). The whole of the plain in the north of the island is occupied by Drift deposits, which occasionally form hills above 300 feet in height. Numerous depressions in the plain at one time occupied by lakes are now filled by beds of peat.
Minerals. - The most important minerals are lead, copper, and zinc, The principal mines are those of Laxey, near the Laxey river, which produce lead, copper, and especially sulphide of zinc, which forms more than two-thirds of the total quantity of ore raised from those mines. The galena obtained is very rich in silver. The Foxdale mines, between Castletown and St John's, are also very largely wrought. The amount of copper ore is comparatively small. The mines are'rented from the queen as lady of the manor, the lessees paying one-tenth of the produce. In 1852 the total quantity of lead ore obtained was 2415 tons, of lead 18341 tons, and of silver 36,700 oz., the value of which was £7646. In 1871 the total quantity of lead ore obtained was 4645 tons, producing 3335 tons of lead and 176,631, oz. of silver ; 5768 tons of zinc were also obtained, valued at £19,015, and 267 tons of copper ore, producing 18 tons of copper, valued at £1074. In 1881 Brada Head copper-mine yielded 78 tons of ore, producing 6 tons 5 cwts. of fine copper, valued at £562, 13s. ; and at Great Laxey 7567 tons of zinc were raised, giving 3480 tons of the metal, valued at £28,701. The following table gives the produce of the lead-mines in 1881.
Rotten-stone and ochre are obtained in the south at Malew and Arbory, the total amount raised in 1881 being 207 tons, valued at £636. Iron is found in small quantities at Foxdale, but the total quantity obtained in 1881 was only 120 tons, valued at £60. Limestone is extensively quarried in the southern districts, both for building purposes and for agriculture. Dolomite occurs in large quantities hi the mines at Laxey. There is a valuable granite quarry at Foxdale. Gold in minute particles lies in the bed of a small stream near Barrule. A considerable number of other minerals are found, but the quantity of each is unimportant. The total number of persons employed in the mines in 1881 was 1258.
Climate. - The mean annual temperature is higher than that of any other district occupying the same parallel of latitude, and the variation according to the seasons is remarkably small. The mean annual temperature is a little less than 49° Fahr., the mean temperature of summer less than 59°, and that of winter nearly 42', giving a difference of only 17°. Rain is frequent but seldom heavy, the annual fall being 41.71 inches, about the same as in the adjacent parts of England and Scotland, but less than in those of Ireland. Thunderstorms are very rare. Many plants, even palms, which in England require artificial heat, grow in some parts of the island throughout winter in the open air, while fuchsias under the same conditions attain to great size and perfection. The air is unusually clear and pure.
Agriculture. - Owing originally to the enterprise of Scotch and English farmers, the land where arable has been brought into a state of high cultivation. Through many small holding•have been combined into large farms cultivated on modern principles.
According to the agricultural returns of 1882, the cultivated area comprehended 97,494 acres, 67 per cent. of the whole. The commons and uncultivated lands on the mountains are, moreover, utilized for the pasturage of horses, cattle, and sheep, the evergreen furze forming the principal food of these animals during the winter season. The area under corn crops was 25,211 acres, under green crops 12,046, rotation grasses 37,094, permanent pasture (exclusive of heath or mountain land), 22,836, and fallow 307. Oats occupy about one-half of the total area under corn crops, barley about one-third, and wheat about one-sixth. The wheat, which is of a very fine quality, is cultivated chiefly in the north of the island. The white and red clover and the common grasses grow in great luxuriance, and on account of the good pasturage in winter the supply much exceeds the needs of the island, large quantities being shipped to the neighbouring districts of England. Turnips, which in 1882 occupied 8432 acres, are also largely exported. The dry sandy soil of the island is very favourable for the growth of potatoes, the area planted in 1882 being 3373 acres. The most common rotation of crops is corn, green crop, corn, clover and hay, and pasture.
The total number of horses in 1882 was 5249, of which 3551 were used solely for purposes of agriculture. The native breed of horses is similar to that of North Wales. They are small, but hardy, active, and patient of labour. In 1882 cattle numbered as many as 19,780, an average of nearly 21 to every 100 acres under cultivation, considerably above that of Great Britain, which was 18-4. Of the cattle, 6862, or more than one-third, were cows and heifers in milk or in calf. On account of the large number of summer visitors, dairy farming is specially profitable. The native breed of cattle has very much degenerated, but an improved stock is now general through the importation chiefly of Ayrshires and shorthorns. Sheep in 1882 numbered 55,690, not a very large number considering the mountainous nature of the country, but cattle feeding is generally more profitable than sheep rearing, partly owing to the fine climate. The principal sheep runs are those which have been enclosed by the crown from the common lands. The native breed of sheep, small hardy animals, is gradually being superseded by crosses, and by the introduction of English sheep in the low grounds. The fleece of the native sheep is not valuable, but the mutton is of very fine quality. Pigs are largely kept, the number in 1882 being 4685. The old breed called " purrs " is now nearly extinct.
In 1882 there were 237 acres under orchards, 142 under market gardens, and 6 under nursery grounds. The acreage under woods is not given, but it is very small. Apples, for which the island was at one time famed, are still grown in considerable quantities, and gooseberries, currants, strawberries, and other smaller fruits are largely cultivated. The botany of the island is not specially interesting. The variety of species is not great, although there are a few rare plants.
Fauna. - Like Ireland, the Isle of Man is exempt from venomous reptiles and toads, a circumstance traditionally attributed to the agency of St Patrick, the patron saint of both islands. Frogs are, however, found, and both the sand lizard and the common lizard are met with. Moles are absent, badgers are unknown, and foxes are now extinct. Fossil bones are frequently found of the Irish elk ; and the red deer, as is proved by the references to it in old laws, and the representations of it on Runic monuments, was at one time common, although the species had almost disappeared about the beginning of the 18th century. Hares are less plentiful than formerly, and rabbits are not numerous except on the Calf Islet. Snipe are abundant. There are a few partridges, grouse, and quail, but neither pheasants nor black game. Various species of waterfowl visit the island, including wild geese, wild ducks, plover, widgeon, and teal. The Manx puffin (Procellaria anglorum) is becoming scarce, but still frequents the Calf Islet. The peregrine falcon breeds in the precipitous rocks in the neighbourhood of the Calf Islet, and at Maughold Head. The red-legged crow is common, the kingfisher scarce. The cuckoo is a yearly visitant, as is also the lapwing. Wild pigeons and seabirds of great variety frequent the rocks.
A variety of the domestic cat, remarkable for the absence or stunted condition of the tail, is common in the island.
Manufactures and Trade. - Partly perhaps on account of the absence of coal, the manufactures of the island have not attained any importance, the principal being Manx cloth, canvas, nets, ropes, and twine. There is, however, a large export of all kinds of agricultural produce, horses, cattle, and sheep, as well as of lead, lime, and black marble. Much of the trade is still carried on by means of small coasting vessels, but these are being gradually superseded by steamers which ply between Douglas and Liverpool, Barrow, Fleetwood, Silloth, Dublin, Belfast, Whitehaven, and Glasgow. The imports consist principally of provisions from England, timber from Norway, and lean cattle from Ireland. In 1881 the number of vessels engaged in the foreign and colonial trade that entered the ports of the island was 26 of 4885 tons, while 14 of 2916 tons cleared. The number engaged in the coasting trade was - entered, 2288 of 440,158 tons ; cleared, 2328 of 436,107 tons. There is daily communication between Douglas and Liverpool.
There are very valuable fishing grounds, especially for herring and cod, round the southern half of the island from Peel to Douglas, and mackerel fishing is also largely prosecuted by the islanders off the coast of Ireland. The Manx fishing boats, decked and undecked, number upwards of seven hundred, employing more than four thousand men. Peel and Port St Mary alone have about three hundred and fifty-seven boats, manned by two thousand five hundred men, the capital invested in boats and nets being for these ports alone about £100,000.
The prosperity of the island, apart from its fishing and agriculture, is mainly dependent on its yearly influx of summer visitors, the annual number being now about 120,000. The season lasts from the middle of May to the middle of September.
Internal Communication. - The roads, which of late years have been greatly improved and extended, are excellent. They are maintained by a system of licences on innkeepers, grocers, and hawkers, and by an impost on carriages, carts, and dogs, and a rate on real property. The highways are under the management of a hoard appointed by the Tynwald court, a surveyor-general, and parochial surveyors.
The first railway in the Isle of Man was that between Douglas and Peel, opened in 1873. There is now communication by rail between the various towns of the island, and a proposal has also been made for a direct line between Douglas and Ramsey via Laxey. The insular government has assisted one of the railway companies by a guarantee. The railways are single narrow-gauge lines, and are worked on the baton system.
Government and Administration. - The government of the island is vested in a governor appointed by the crown, a council which acts as an upper chamber of the legislature, and the House of Keys. The governor and council and the House of Keys together constitute the court of Tynwald ; but the approval of the queen of Great Britain in council is essential to every legislative enactment. Acts of the British legislature do not affect the island except it be specially named in them. For the purposes of civil jurisdiction the island is divided into a northern and a southern district, and each of these is again subdivided into three " sheadings," which are analogous to counties.
The governor, who is the representative of the sovereign, is captain-general of the military forces. He presides in the council and in all courts of Tynwald, and is ex officio sole judge of the chancery and exchequer courts. The council consists of the lord bishop of the diocese, the attorney-general, the two deemsters, the cleric of the rolls, the water-bailiff, the receiver-general, the archdeacon, and the vicar-general, all of whom are appointed by the crown, except the vicar-general, who is appointed by the bishop. No act of the governor and council is valid unless it is the act of the governor and at least two members of the council. The House of Keys, the representative branch of the legislature of the island, is one of the most ancient legislative assemblies in the world. It consists of twenty-four members elected by male owners or occupiers, and female owners of property. Each of the six sheadings elects three members, the towns of Castletown, Peel, and Ramsey one each, and Douglas, the chief town, three. There is a property quali fication required of the members, and the house sits for seven years unless previously dissolved. The Keys were at one time self-elected, but in 1866 they consented to popular election in exchange for the privilege of controlling the expenditure of the surplus revenue of the island, agreeing, however, to pay into the imperial exchequer a fixed sum of £10,000 annually as the island's contribution towards the expenses of the army and navy of the United Kingdom.
In matters of property the court of chancery has the most extensive jurisdiction of any in the island, and is a court both of law and of equity. The governor presides, and is assisted by the clerk of the rolls and the deemsters. The exchequer court takes cognizance of all matters connected with the revenue, and also determines the right of tithe. The common law courts for the southern division are held at Douglas and Castletown alternately, and those for the northern division at Ramsey, once in three months. They are presided over by the deemsters, and take cognizance of all actions, real, personal, and mixed, and of civil matters that require to be determined by a jury. Courts of general jail delivery arc held at Castletown, for the trial of prisoners indicted for criminal offences ; the governor presides, attended by the deemsters, the clerk of the rolls, and the water-bailiff.
The deemsters or judges of the island (supposed by some to be the successors of the Druidical priests) until the 15th century acted according to unwritten laws, called "breast laws," of which they were the depositaries. They have concurrent jurisdiction over the whole island. Their advice is taken by the governor on all difficult points of law. Each has now a salary of £1000 per annum. Deemster courts are held weekly, alternately at Douglas and Castletown by the deemster for the southern division, and at Ramsey and Peel or Kirk Michael by the deemster of the northern division. They take cognizance in a summary manner of matters of debt, and have jurisdiction in criminal cases. The herring fishery, and the boats employed in it, are placed under the charge of the water-bailiff, who holds courts to redress grievances and enforce the regulations of the fishery. He appoints with a small salary two fishermen, called admirals, to preserve order. The water-bailiff has also civil jurisdiction in questions of salvage, and takes cognizance of suits in maritime matters. The high bailiff's courts are held weekly in Douglas, Castletown, Ramsey, and Peel for the recovery of debts under 40s., and daily for the punishment of drunkenness and offences against public order. The magistrates hold regular courts in each of the towns for the summary trial of breaches of the peace and minor offences. They are appointed by commission under the great seal of England, but their powers are regulated by insular acts of Tynwald. The members of the council and the four high bailiffs are also ex officio magistrates. The coroner of the sheading, who is appointed annually by the governor, is a kind of sheriff. Inquests of death are held by the high bailiff and jury. There are about thirty legal practitioners, called advocates, who combine the functions of barrister and solicitor.
The laws of the island still retain much of their ancient peculiarity of character, though modified by acts of Tynwald, and rendered. in some respects more in unison with those of England. The criminal law was consolidated and amended by the criminal code of 1872.
The general tenure is a customary freehold devolving from each possessor to his next heir-at-law. The descent of land follows the same rules as the descent of the crown of England. The right of primogeniture extends to females in default of males in the direct line. The interest of a widow or widower, being the first wife or husband of a person deceased, in a life estate is one-half of the lands which have descended hereditarily, ana is forfeited by a second marriage ; a second husband or second wife is only entitled to a life interest in one-fourth, if there be issue of the first marriage. Of the land purchased by the husband the wife surviving him is entitled to a life interest in one moiety. By a statute of the year 1777 proprietors of land are empowered to grant leases for any term not exceeding twenty-one years in possession without the consent of the wife. Previous to the Act of Revestment in 1765, the commerce of the island consisted principally in the importing and exporting of contraband goods, the average return of which exceeded half a million sterling per annum, the loss to the British revenue being estimated at £300,000. After this period the customs of the island were regulated by the imperial parlitunent. The various loans to the insular government were consolidated in 1882, and the funded debt now amounts to £230,000.
For the year ending March 31, 1882, the net revenue of the customs of the island was £70,906, and the expenditure £50,558, leaving a balance of £20,348, which is disposed of thus :- One-ninth part of the quarter's revenue to 31st March 1002 ...... f1,001 Due exchequer £10,000 Less abatement on account of loss on importation of goods 2,000 -- 8,000 Expended by War Department, 1881-82 '278 Do. Board of Works, 1881-82 81e Lnappropriated surplus due Isle of Man 10,133 £20,3.13 Religion. and Eclucatioa. - Christianity is said to have been introduced into the island by St Patrick about the middle of the 5th century. The bishopric of Sodor (i.e., Sudrcys, the southern Hebrides) was formerly united with that of Man ; and the union continued till the 14th century, the Manx bishops even now retaining the joint title Sodor and Man. Some indeed affirm, but with small evidence to support the statement, that the title of Sodor was derived from the little island off Peel, said to have been at one time called Sodor, now known as St Patrick's Isle, and the seat of the cathedral of St German. The diocese is in the province of York ; its bishop has a seat bat not a vote in the House of Lords. The bishop is assisted in ecclesiastical matters by an archdeacon, a vicar-general, a registrar, and, a sumner-general.
The ecclesiastical courts are the consistory, chapter, and the vicar-general's summary court. The livings of the clergy arise chiefly from tithes ; the patronage, from the bishopric downwards, with the exception of four in the gift of the diocesan, is vested in the crown.
Besides King William's College, opened in 1833, providing an education equal to that obtainable at the highest class schools of England, and possessing a considerable number of exhibitions to the universities, there are in the island several other good secondary schools. The parochial schools are also well taught, and there are now board schools, under the insular Education Act, established throughout the island.
Population. - The following table shows the population of each parish and town from 1726 to 1881.
The principal towns of the island are Douglas, Castletown, Ramsey, and Peel. Douglas, the chief town and seat of government, is noticed in vol. vii. p. 376. Castletown, the ancient capital of the island, was until a recent period the residence of the governor. It possesses a good harbour, barracks, and a custom-house. Ramsey, on account of its fine sandy beach and beautiful situation, is a favourite watering-place, and it has also a large shipping trade. Peel, adjoining St Patrick's islet, is the principal seat of the herring fishery.
Language. - The Manx language is a subdialect of the ancient Celtic, and a dialect of the Irish branch, to which the Scottish Gaelic also belongs. The differences in pronunciation of these languages are not so great as to prevent a native of either country conversing with one of the other, although the differences in orthography perplex even the most learned linguists. The Manx is now spoken only in the north-western parishes and at a few localities along the western coast. The natives generally converse in the English language. Manx is not taught in any of the schools, and it is very probable that it will shortly become utterly extinct. See CELTIC LITERATURE, vol. v. p. 298.
JIistory and Antiquities. - It admits of nearly absolute demonstration that Anglesey and not Man was the Mona of Caesar. By ancient writers the island is called Eubonia. The English name Man is derived from the Manx Ham/in. Many explanations have been given of the origin of the word, but none of them are better than conjectures.' It is inherently probable that the island was occupied by the Romans, and this is confirmed by the discovery of a Roman altar, which is still preserved in Castle Rushen, and of Roman coins in the same vicinity. A cist and urn found in 1852 near Tynwald Hill are supposed to belong to the aboriginal pagan period ; another memorial of this period is probably St Patrick's chair, consisting of five upright stones on a stone platform forming a seat. Two of the stones are marked by a cross, but this in all likelihood was done at a period long subsequent to their erection. According to tradition the island was for a considerable period one of the chief seats of the Druids. By the peasantry nearly all the old monuments are attributed to the Druids, but the Runic crosses belong of course to a later period. One of the principal Druidical stone circles is that on the eminence called Mull, near the Calf Islet.
The earliest personage mentioned by tradition and history is Mannanan-Beg-Mac-y-Lheirr, who is described in the statute-book of the island as a paynim, who "kept the land :under mist by his necromancy." In 517 Maelgwyn, king of North Wales, and nephew of King Arthur, expelled the Scots, and annexed the island to his Welsh dominions. He was succeeded by his son Rhun-apMaelgwyn in 560, from whom in 581 the island was reconquered by Aydun M`Gabhran, king of Scotland, who appointed his sister's son Brennus " thane of Man." The Welsh king appears to have recovered it from the Scots about 611, and to have retained possession of it until 630, when it was conquered by Edwin, king of Northumbria. Shortly afterwards it again fell under the dominion of the Welsh, till towards the close of the 9th century it was subdued by Harold Haarfager of Norway. The jails of Harold for some time threw off his rule, and held independent sway. Of these Jarl Orry succeeded in establishing his rule over Man. His descendants continued to rule till 1077, when Godred Crovan, son of Harold the Black of Iceland, routed the islanders and slew their king, Fingal II. On the death of Godred in 1093, Magnus Barefoot succeeded in obtaining possession of Man, over which lie placed the Norwegian jarl Octtar as got-ernor. The inhabitants of the southern district, becoming displeased with Octtar, elected Maemanus in his place ; a battle in consequence ensued at Santwart (or Sainthill), in the parish of Jurby, and victory was inclining to the party of Macmanus, when the women of the north, rushing to the scene of action, totally changed the issue of the fight, although not till both leaders were slain. On the death of Magnus, the right of Godred Crovan's line to the kingdom of the Isles was recognized, and Lagman, the son of that conqueror, succeeded to the government. He at length abdicated, and undertook a pilgrimage to Palestine, whence lie never returned. Olave 11. surnamed the Dwarf, the only surviving son of Godred Crovan, being then a minor, a regent was appointed, who was expelled from the kingdom in the third year of his government. Olave ascended the throne in 1114. He entered into alliance with the kings of England, Ireland, and Scotland, but Ins reign was disturbed by the pretensions of three natural sons of his brother Harold, by one of whom he was treacherously slain in 1154. On this Godred the Black, Olave's only legitimate son, was recalled from Norway, and the sons of Harold were delivered to condign punishment. During his reign Somerled, thane of Argyll, obtained possession of the island, and Godred had to take refuge in Norway, where lie remained till the death of the usurper, on which lie regained possession of Ms throne. His death took place in 1187. Olave Ill., his only legitimate son, being then a minor, Reginald, another son, was appointed to the government during leis minority. The latter endeavoured to secure to himself the throne by doing homage to John of England, and afterwards by acknowledging the supremacy of the pope; a series of struggles was the consequence, till at length Reginald was slain in 1226. In 1237 Olave died in Peel Castle, leavine. three sons, - Harold, Reginald, and Magnus ; he was suc- ceeded' by his son Harold II. who was drowned, with his queen and a numerous retinue of nobility, in 1248, on their return from Norway, where they had been celebrating his marriage with Cecilia, daughter of Haco. His brother Reginald H. assumed the government, but was afterwards slain by Ivar, brother of Reginald the usurper, in 1249. On the death of Reginald II. his brother Magnus was chosen king. John of the Isles landed with an army at Ronaldsway to dispute his claims, but was driven from the island.
From this time the power of the Norwegian kings began to decline, and that of the Scottish sovereigns to revive. Magnus did homage to Alexander III. of Scotland, and held the island from the crown of Scotland. He died in 1265, without issue. In the meantime Magnus VI. of Norway, as the legitimate sovereign of Man, ceded in 1266 to Alexander III. all his claims and interest in the sovereignty and episcopacy of Man for the sum of 4000 marks, and an annual pension of 100 marks. The widow of Magnus (the late king of Man) succeeded, however, in getting Ivar, the assassin of her brother-in-law Reginald, placed on the vacant throne; and Alexander in 1270 sent an army to reduce the island to obedience. After a decisive battle at Ronaldsway, iii which Ivar was slain, the kingdom was annexed to the dominions of Alexander. This monarch, in token of his conquest, substituted the quaint device of "the three legs," which still constitutes the national emblem, for the ancient armorial ensign of the is and7 a ship in full sail, with the motto, "Rex Humane ct He placed the island under the government of his nobles or thanes, whose repeated acts of tyrannical oppression at length inspired the inhabitants to throw off the Scottish yoke. Bishop Mark (Marcus ,alvadiensis), a Scotchman, however, being informed of their determination, obtained their mutual consent to decide the contest by thirty champions selected front each party. The Manx champions were all killed, and twenty-five of the Scottish warriors shared the same fate. This victory confirmed the conquest of the Scots ; the ancient regal government was abolished, and a military despotism established.
The most important relics of the Northmen are the Runic crosses, of which there are about forty, either whole or fragmentary. Nearly one half of these contain Scandinavian inscriptions in the ancient Norse language and in Runic character. There are a very large number at Kirk Michael, but some of the most perfect are those in the churchyards of Ballaugh, Maughold, and Braddan.
During the contentions of Bruce and Ballo], Edward I. of England took possession of the island for a period, while two rival claimants for the throne appeared. One of these was Mary, the daughter of Reginald II.; the other her aunt Affrica or Alfrida, a daughter of Olave II., and sister of Magnus. The latter in 1305 conveyed her right in the island to her husband, Sir Simon de Montacute, whose son Sir William afterwards mortgaged its revenues to Anthony Beek, bishop of Durham and patriarch of Jerusalem. In 1313 Bruce made a descent on the island, and granted it to his nephew Randolph, earl of Murray.
In the reign of Edward III. Mary Waldebeof, daughter of the previous claimant, solicited the assistance of that monarch. The king allowed her title, and by giving her in marriage to William Montacute, earl of Salisbury (the grandson of Sir Simon Montacute and Alfrida), thus united in their persons the rights of the two lines of descendants of Olave the Black to the kingdom of Man. With the aid of the English king, the earl was enabled to expel the Rando1phs from the island ; and in the year 1344 he was crowned king of Man. In the year 1393 the earl of Salisbury sold to Sir William le Scroop, afterwards earl of Wiltshire, "the Isle of Man, with the title of king, and the right of being crowned with a golden crown." On his attainder for high treason, the island in 1399 was bestowed on Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, but, he having been attainted and banished, Henry IV. made a grant of it to Sir John Stanley for life. This grant was cancelled, and a new patent passed the Great Seal in 1406, bestowing the island on him and his heirs, to be held of the crown of Great Britain, by presenting to the king a cast of falcons at his coronation. Sir John died in 1414.
The lords of the house of Stanley governed the island chiefly by lieutenants, who occupied the castles of Peel and Rushen. Various tumults arose ; and in 1422 fourteen persons were drawn by wild horses, quartered, and beheaded. Eventually authority was delegated by Sir John Stanley the second to Henry Byron, who remodelled the House of Keys, and rendered his regency one of the most popular in the insular history. Sir John died in 1432, and was succeeded by his son Thomas, who was created Baron Stanley by Henry VI., and died in 1460. Thomas his son was created earl of Derby by Henry VII. He died in 1505. This nobleman's son Thomas, the second earl of Derby, relinquished the title of king of Man, as he preferred " being a great lord to being a petty king." Edward, the third earl, son of the last-named Thomas, was a great favourite with Henry VIII. On his death in 1572 he was succeeded by his son Henry, the fourth earl of Derby. He died in 1594, leaving two sons, Ferdinand and William, who in time became lords of Man. The title of William was disputed by the three daughters of Ferdinand ; with these, however, he effected a compromise ; and in 1610 he obtained an "act for assuring and establishing the Isle of Man in the name and blood of William, earl of Derby," but in 1627 resigned his dignities to his son James, celebrated in history as "the great earl of Derby."
After the execution of this earl in 1651, for bringing aid to Charles II. before the battle of Worcester, the defence of the island was undertaken by the heroic Lady Derby, who was then in Castle Bushell ; but William Christian, the receiver-general, on the appearance of a hostile fleet, surrendered the castle without resistance. The island was then granted to General Lord Fairfax, who held it until the Restoration, when it was restored to Charles, the eighth earl (the son of Earl James), in 1660. On the death of Earl Charles in 1672 he was succeeded by his son William, the ninth earl, who took but little interest in his Manx property, and, dying without issue in 1702, was succeeded by his brother James (a younger son of Charles, the eighth earl). At this time the lordship of Man was approaching dissolution. The leases, which had been granted for three lives, having nearly expired, and no provision having been made relative to their renewal, the neglect of agriculture became general, and the people were wholly given up to the fisheries and the pursuit of the contraband trade. In 1703, however, the earl conferred on his Manx subjects the Act of Settlement (very justly called the Manx Magna Charta), by which the lessees of estates were finally established in their possession, and their descent secured in perpetuity, on the payment of certain fines, rents, and dues to the lords. James died in 1736 without issue.
The lordship of Man then devolved on James, second duke of Athole, a descendant of the Lady Amelia Anna Sophia Stanley (youngest daughter of the seventh earl of Derby). In 1725, in order to put an end to the contraband trade of the island, an Act of Parliament was passed authorizing the purchase of all the royalties and revenues of the island; but no result followed till 1765, when proposals for the purchase were revived and the sovereignty and its revenues were surrendered to the crown for £70,000. The duke and duchess reserved the manorial rights, the patronage of the see, and other emoluments and perquisites. By the Act of Revestment the island was more closely united to the crown of England, although its independent form of government has never experienced any material change. An annuity of £2000 had also been granted to the duke and duchess, but, on the ground of inadequate compensation, the fourth duke presented petitions to parliament and the privy council in 1781 and 1790. He did not succeed, however, until the year 1805, when an Act was passed assigning to him and his heirs, as an additional grant, a sum equal to one-fourth of the revenues of the island, which was afterwards commuted for £3000 per annum for ever.
In 1825 an Act passed both houses of parliament, at the instance of the lords of the treasury, authorizing the lords of the treasury to treat with the duke for the purchase of his remaining interest in the island, and in 1829 he was awarded a further sum of £417,144 for his rights in and over the soil as lord of the manor, as follows :- For the annuity £150,000 Rents and alienation fines ..... .............. ..... ............... 34,000 Tithes, mines, and quarries Patronage of the bishopric, with fourteen advowsons, the 233,144 aggregate value of which was £6000 Total., £417,144 The ecclesiastical buildings of Man have never been remarkable for architectural beauty. The most important ecclesiastical ruin is St German's cathedral On St Patrick's Isle. The present building, which is roofless and in a very dilapidated condition, dates from 1245, but is supposed to occupy the site of an older building. It is a rude.eruciform structure 110 feet long by 70 feet broad. The tower, 68 feet in height, is still entire. The crypt of the cathedral was made use of for an ecclesiastical prison, among its more import- ant captives being Eleanor, wife of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, uncle of Henry v T. She is alluded to by Shakespeare as living in banishment "with Sir John Stanley in the Isle of Man." St Patrick's church on the same islet is supposed to have been erected in the time of St Patrick. Adjoining it is a round tower similar to those so common in Ireland. Most of the other old churches in Man have been replaced by modern structures, but another very ancient one is Lonan old church, now partly roofless, a very unpretending structure, but said to date from the 6th century. St Trinian's church, also in ruins, is said never to have been roofed, a circumstance accounted for by an interesting legend. Of Rushen Abbey, a house of the Cistercians, founded by Olave, king of Man, in 1134, there now only remain the tower, refectory, and dormitory. The Franciscan friary of Bimakin, founded in 1373, has been partly rebuilt in a rude manner, and is used as a barn. Of the nunnery of Douglas, said to have been founded by Matilda, daughter of Ethelbort, king of the West Saxons, there are now very slight remains, chiefly of the chapel.
The principal castles are Castle Bushell, in Castletown, the ancient residence of the kings of Man, dating probably from the 13th century, and still quite entire ; Peel Castle, the ancient stronghold of the island ; and Castle Mona, Douglas, erected in 1801 as a residence by the duke of Athole, and now used as a hotel.
The chief sources of the early history of Man are the Norse and Erse Sagas, and the record kept by the monks of Rushen Abbey entitled Chronicon Alanniie which has been edited with learned notes by P. A. Munch, Christiania, 1860! The best general history is that of Train, 2 vols., 1845. Among other works may be mentioned J. G. Cumming, Isle of Alan, its history, physical, ecclesiastical, civil, and legendary, 1S1S ; Id., Runic and other Remains of the Isle of Man, 1537 ; J. 0. Halliwell, Roundabout Notes on the Isle of Man, 1863. The publications of the Manx Society are of great value and interest.