MADURA, in High Javanese Madanten, an island of the East Indian Archipelago, separated by the shallow Strait of Madura from the east end of Java. It extends Europeans. It may be safely asserted, however, that the a height of 1542 feet. Hot springs are not unfrequent; a girdle of tropical vegetation, broken only here and there by small white peaks with steep perpendicular cliffs ;" but, except in a few alluvial tracts in the lower courses of the streams, the soil is thin and poor, and better fitted for pastoral than agricultural purposes. Maize is by far the most important of the crops ; it is planted after rice in the in all the departments, but the most valuable product of mented by Ragung and Pangaringan. The population of Java and Madura, and speak a distinct language, for which compare JAVA, VOL The following are the places of chief note in the island. Kamal at the south-west corner is the point where people usually cross from Java. Bangkalang is the large and flourishing chief town of Madura proper, with the old palace of the sultan and the residences of the princes of the blood ; the mosque is adorned with the first three suras of the Koran, thus differing from nearly all the mosques in Java and Madura, though resembling those of western Islam. In the vicinity once stood the Erfprins fort. Arisbaya (less correctly Arosbaya) is the place where the first mosque was built in Madura, and where the Dutch sailors first made acquaintance with the natives. The once excellent harbour is now silted up. Ajermata, so called from its salt-springs, is the burial-place of the princes of Bangkalang. Pamakasan, though a town of considerable extent, presents nothing worthy of notice apart from the regent's residence. Sampans, the seat of an important market, seems hardly so flourishing as in Valentyn's days. The town or ;iota of Sumenep had 15,000 inhabitants in 1846 ; and there are populous Malay, Arab, and Chinese villages between the town and the European settlement of Maringan. On a hill in the neighbourhood, with a fine outlook over the Bay of Sumenep, lies Asta, the burial-place of the Sumenep princes ; and Nail Kusuma's mausoleum excels everything of the kind in Java.
Madura formerly consisted of three native statesMadura or Bangkalang, Pamakasan, and Sumenep. Dutch authority was represented by an assistant resident, and the whole island considered part of the Java residency of Surabaya. The separate residency of Madura was constituted in 1857. On the death of the second sultan of .Bangkalang (1847) the title had been reduced to that of panembahan ; and in 1872 the new ruler was deprived of the right of collecting taxes, and made a Government pensioner, while his territory was split into the two Dutch "departments" of Madura and Sampang. The sultan of Sumcnep was in like manner succeeded by a panembahan in 1853 ; and the death of the panembahan in 1879 afforded an opportunity of enlarging the Government control. There are thus four " departmenqs " in Madura, - Pamakasan, Madura, Sumenep, and Sampang. The first three are also regencies, and the fourth a subregeney of Bangkalang ; but Pamakasan alone has the full regency organization. The number of village communities is 1271.
The best systematic account of Madura will be found in Professor Veth's Java, vol. Ili., the proof sheets of which have, by the author's courtesy, been consulted for this article. See also Illeeker, in Indisch. Archief., 1., and Tijds. van Ned. Ind., ix.; C. de Groot in Nat. Tijds. van Ned. Ind., iv.; lioevell, Reis over Java, II.; Zellinger, "Jets over do Nat. geschied. van Madura," in N. Tvds. van Ned. Ind., xvii. ; Jukes, Voyage of the "Fly"; and Ilagemun in Tijds. van Ned. Ind., 1858.