MANUEL II.,PAL:EOLOGUS, emperor of Constantinople, was born in. 1348, and succeeded his father, John VI. (with whom lie had been associated since 1375), in 1391. At the time he was a hostage at the court of Bajazet at•Niecea, but succeeded in making his escape ; he was forthwith besieged in Constantinople by the sultan, whose victory over the Christians at Nicopolis, however (September 28, 1395), did not secure for him the capital. Manuel subsequently set out in person to seek help from the West, and for this purpose visited Italy, France, and Germany, but without material success ; the victory of Timur in 1402, and the death of Bajazet in the following year, were the first events to give him a genuine respite from Ottoman oppression. He stood on friendly terms with Mahomet but was again besieged in his capital by Amurath II. in 1422. He died in 1425, and was succeeded by his son, John VII.