species short molar teeth tail upper sectorial genus feet dentition
MAMMALIA CARNIVORA, though the Carnivora as at present restricted 1 form a very natural and well-defined order among the Maninialia, it is difficult to find any important common diagnostic characters by which they can be absolutely separated ; but, as in the case of so many other natural groups, it is by the possession of a combination of various characters that Fancily CERVIDX.
Frontal appendages, when present, in.the form of antlers. First molar at least in both jaws brachyodont. Two orifices to the lacrymal duet, situated on or inside the rim of the orbit. An ante-orbital vacuity of such dimensions as to exclude the lacrymal bone from articulation with the nasal. Upper canines usually present in both sexes, and sometimes attaining a very great size in the male (see fig. 114). Lateral digits of both fore and hind feet almost they must be distinguished. They are unguiculate, and have never less than four well-developed toes on each foot, with nails more or less pointed, rarely rudimentary or absent. The pollex and hallux are never opposable to the other digits. They are regularly diphyodont and heterodont, and their teeth are always rooted.' Their dentition consists of small pointed incisors, usually three in number, on each side of each jaw, of which the first is always the smallest and the third the largest, the difference being most marked in the upper jaw ; strong conical, pointed, recurved canines ; molars variable, but generally, especially in the anterior part of the series, more or less compressed, pointed, and trenchant ; if the crowns are flat and tuberculated they are never complex or divided into lobes by deep inflexions of enamel. The condyle of the lower jaw is a transversely placed half-cylinder working in a deep glenoid fossa of corresponding form. The brain varies much in relative size and form, but the hemispheres are never destitute of well-marked convolutions. The stomach is always simple and pyriform. The cmcum is either absent or short and simple, and the colon is not sacculated or greatly wider than the small intestine. Yesiculze seminales are never present. Cowper's glands are present in some, absent in other groups. The uterus is bicornuate. The mamma; are abdominal, and very variable in number. The placenta is deciduate, and almost always zonary. The clavicle is often entirely absent, and when present is never complete. The radius and ulna are distinct. The scaphoid and lunar hones are always united into one, and there is never a distinct Os centrale in the adult. The fibula is always a distinct slender bone.
The large majority of the species composing this order subsist chiefly upon some variety of animal food, though many are omnivorous, and some few chiefly, though not entirely, vegetable eaters. The more typical forms live altogether on recently-killed warm-blooded animals, and their whole organization is thoroughly adapted to a predaceous mode of life. In conformity with this manner of obtaining their subsistence they are generally bold and savage in disposition, though some species are capable of being domesticated, and when placed under favourable circumstances for the development of such qualities exhibit a very high degree of intelligence and fidelity. The order is naturally divided into two suborders, the members of one being the more typical, and mainly terrestrial in their mode of life, while those of the other are aberrant, having the whole of their organization specially modified for living habitually in water. These are called respectively the True or Fissiped and the Pinniped Carnivora.
throughout the suborder, they are greatly modified in different genera. The upper sectorial is the most posterior of the teeth which have predecessors, and is therefore reckoned as the last premolar (p 4 of the typical dentition). It consists essentially of a more or less compressed , I ff LI , o t' ,,, , : •i ;..,4-, A ...`: .-; ',,7',.'' ,-.' 0o; j ''-77-:-,-:r, • ;'_ 5 ., -- - ,,-.........JT(‘.., Fin. 110. - Upper Sectorial Tenth of C,rvivora. I, Fe7is; II, Canis; III, Ursus 1, antelior, 2, middle, and 3, posterior cusp of blade ; 4, inner lobe suppo•tec on distinct root; 5, inner lobe, posterior in position, and without distinct root. characteristic of the Ursidx., blade supported on two roots and an inner lobe supported by a distinct root (see fig. 116). The blade when full) developed has three cusps (1, 2, and 3), but the anterior ii always small, and often absent. The middle lobe is conical high, and pointed ; the posterior lobe has a compresse straight knife-like edge. The inner lobe (4) varies ver) much in extent, but it is generally placed near the anterior end of the blade, though sometimes it is median in position 4 , ... , _ .
I I . ‘,. I 4 k' t , 1Y ,I1 FIG. 117. - Modifications of the Lower Seetorid Tooth in Carnivora, T, Felis II, Canis; III, Ilerfu sifgs ; IV, Lutra; V, Metes; VI, Ur-sus. 1, anterio lobe of blade ; 2, posterior lobe of blade ; 3, inner tubercle ; 4, heel. It wil be seen that the relative size of the two roots varies according to the develop ment of the portion of the crown they hate respectively to support.
In the Ursidw alone both inner lobe and root are wanting and there is often a small internal and posterior cusp (5, without root. In this aberrant family also the sectorial is relatively to the other teeth much smaller than in the rest of the Carnivora. The lower sectorial (see fig. 117) is at most anterior of the teeth without predecessors in the mill series; it is therefore reckoned the first true molar On 1). It has two roots supporting a crown, consisting when fully developed of a compressed bilobed blade (1 and 2), a heel (4), and an inner tubercle (3). The lobes of the blade, of which the hinder (2) is the larger, are separated by a notch, generally prolonged into a linear fissure. In the most specialized Carnivora, as the Fetid.% (I.), the blade alone is developed, both heel and inner tubercle being absent or rudimentary. In others, as Aides (V.) and Ursus (VI,), the heel is greatly developed, broad, and tuberculated. The blade in these cases is generally placed obliquely, its flat or convex (outer) side looking forwards, so that the two lobes are almost side by side, instead of anterior and posterior. The inner tubercle (3) is generally a conical pointed cusp, placed to the inner side of the hinder lobe of the blade. The special characters of these teeth are more disguised in the Sea Otter (Enhydra) than in any other form, but even in it they can be traced.
The toes are nearly always armed with large, strong, curved, and tolerably sharp claws, unsheathing the ungual phalanges, and held more firmly in their places by broad lamina of bone reflected over their attached ends from the bases of the phalanges. In some forms, most notably the Felidx, these claws are " retractile." The ungual phalanx, with the claw attached, folds back in the fore foot into a sheath by the outer or ulnar side of the middle phalanx of the digit, being retained in this position when the animal is at rest by a strong elastic ligament. In the hind font the ungual phalanx is retracted on to the top, and not the side of the middle phalanx. By the action of the deep flexor muscles, the ungual phalanges are straightened out, the claws protruded from their sheath, and the soft " velvety " paw becomes suddenly converted into a most formidable weapon of offence. The habitual retraction of the claws preserves their points from wear in ordinary progression.
The Fissipedal Carnivora were divided by Cuvier into two groups, according to the position of the feet in walking, - the Plantigrada, or those that place the whole of the soles to the ground, and the Digitigrada, or those that walk only on the toes ; and the difference between these groups was considered of equal importance to that which separated from them both the Pianigrada or Seals. The distinction is, however, quite an artificial one, and every intermediate condition exists between the extreme typical plantigrade gait of the Bears and the truly digitigrade walk of the Cats and Dogs ; in fact, the greater number of the Carnivora belong to neither one form nor the other, but may be called " subplantigrade," often when at rest applying the whole of the sole to the ground, but keeping the heel raised to a greater or less extent when walking.
A more natural classification is into three distinct sections, of which the Cats, the Dogs, and the Bears may be respectively taken as representatives, and which are hence called Sluroidea, Cynoidea, and Arctoidea. This division is founded mainly on characters exhibited by the base of the skull, but is corroborated by the structure of other parts.1 The presence or absence of a bridge of bone, covering the external carotid artery in a part of its course by the side of the alisphenoid bone, and enclosing the "alisphenoid canal," a character to which the late Idr It N. Turner first drew attention, might Seem unimportant at first sight, but it is curiously constant in certain groups, which we have other reasons, derived often from a combination of less easily definable characters, to regard as natural. It is therefore generally mentioned in the following family definitions.
The zEleroicica or Cat-like forms include the Felidm, Viverridx, Protelidis, and Hyfenitlfe.
True molars reduced to one above and below, that of the upper jaw very small and transversely extended. Only two inferior premolars. Auditory bulla not externally constricted, but internally divided by a septum. No alisphenoid canal. Carotid canal very minute. Digits 5-4. Dorsal vertebrae 13.
Fells. - The whole structure of the animals of this genus exhibits the carnivorous type in its fullest perfection. Dentition : i c p m 1=4 ; total 30. The upper anterior premolar, always small, may sometimes be absent without any other modification in the dental or other structures. Such a variation should not therefore be considered as of generic importance. Incisors very small. Canines large, strong, slightly recurved, with trenchant edges and sharp points, and placed wide apart. Premolars compressed and sharp-pointed. The most posterior in the upper jaw (tl.e sectorial) a very large tooth, consisting of a subeompressed blade, divided into three unequal cusps supported by two roots, with a very small inner lobe placed near the front end of the tooth and supported by a distinct root. The upper true molar a very small tubercular tooth placed more or less transversely at the inner side of the hinder end of the last. In the lower jaw the true molar (sectorial) reduced to the blade alone, which is very large, trenchant, and much compressed, divided into two snbequal lobes. Occasionally it has a rudimentary heel, but never an in ner tuberele. The skull generally is short and rounded, though proportionally more elongated in the larger forms. The facial portion is especially short and broad, and the zygomatie arches very wide and strong. The auditory bulhe are large, rounded, and smooth. Vertebrm : C 7, D 13, L 7, S 3, C 18-29. Clavicles better developed than in other Carnivore, but not articulating with either the shoulder bones or sternum. Limbs digitigrade. Anterior feet with five toes, the third and fourth nearly equal and longest, the second slightly and the fifth considerably shorter ; the pollex still shorter, not reaching as far as the metacarpo-pbalangeal articulation of the second. Hind feet with only four toes. The third and fourth the longest, the second and fifth somewhat shorter and nearly equal ; the hallux represented only by the rudimentary metatarsal bone. The claws all very large, strongly curved, compressed, very sharp, and exhibiting the retractile condition in the highest degree. The tail varies greatly in length, being in some a mere stump, in others nearly as long as the body. Ears of moderate size, more or less triangular and pointed. Eyes rather large. Iris very mobile, and with a pupillary aperture which contracts under the influence of light in some species to a narrow vertical slit, in others to an oval, and in seine to a circular aperture. Tongue thickly covered. with sharp-pointed, reeurved horny Comm. small and simple.
As in structure so in habits, the Cats may be considered the most specialized of all the Carnivore. All the known members of the genus feed, in the natural state, almost exclusively on warm-blooded animals which they have themselves killed. One Indian species viverrina) is said to prey on fish and even freshwater molluscs. Unlike the Dogs, they never associate in packs, and rarely hunt their prey in open ground, but from some place of concealment wait until the unsuspecting victim comes within reach, or with noiseless and stealthy tread, crouching close to the ground for concealment, approach near enough to make the fatal spring. In this manner they frequently attack and kill animals considerably exceeding their own size. They are mostly nocturnal, and the greater number, especially the smaller species, more or less arboreal. None arc aquatic, and all take to the water with reluctance, though some may habitually haunt the banks of rivers or pools, because they more easily obtain their -prey in such situations. The numerous species of the genus are very widely diffused over the greater part of the habitable world, though most abundant in the warm latitudes of both hemispheres. No species are, however, found in the Australian region, or in Madagascar. Although the Old-World and New' World Cats (except perhaps the Northern Lynx) are all specifically distinct, no common structural character has been pointed out by which the former can be separated from the latter. On the contrary, most of the minor groups into which the genus has been divided have representatives in both hemispheres.
Notwithstanding the considerable diversity in external appearance and size between different members of this extensive genus, the structural differences are but slight, and so variously combined in different species that the numerous attempts hitherto made to subdivide it are all unsatisfactory and artificial. The principal differences are to be found in the form of the cranium, especially of the nasal and adjoining bones, the completeness of the bony orbit posteriorly, the development of the first upper premolar and of the inner lobe of the upper sectorial, the length of the tail, the form of the pupil, and the condition and coloration of the fur, especially the presence or absence of tufts or pencils of hair on the external ears. There is one decidedly aberrant form, which enables us to divide the genus into two sections, to which the rank of genera is sometimes accorded.
fifty species, of which the following are the most important and best known.
Old- World Species.
For F. leo, see LION; and for R. tigris, see TIGER. With regard to F. pardus, the Leopard or Panther, it is still a matter of uncertainty whether the large spotted Cats to which these names are given, found chiefly in wooded districts through nearly the whole of Africa and the warmer parts of Asia as far as Japan, belong to one or several species. See LEOPARD. F. U7Wia, the Ounce, inhabits the highlands of Central Asia, from the snowy mountains of Tibet to the southern parts of Siberia, at altitudes of from 9000 to 18,000 feet above the sea. It is about the size of the common Leopard, but lighter in colour, with longer fur and less distinct spots. Its skull differs in shape from that of all the other Felidx, the facial portion being very broad, the nasal bones especially being wide and depressed, and the zygomatic arches very strong and deep. F. macrocelis, the Clouded Tiger, is a beautifully marked species, with elongated head and body, long tail, and rather short limbs. The canine teeth are proportionally longer than in any existing member of the genus. It is thoroughly arboreal, and is found in the forests of south-east Asia and the islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Formosa. F. serval, the Serval, from South Africa, is yellow with black spots, and has a short tail and large ears. Numerous smaller species called Tiger Cats and Wild Cats, many of them by no means clearly defined zoologically, are found throughout the warmer parts of Asia and Africa. The Wild Cat of Europe, F. catus, still inhabits the mountainous and wooded parts of Great Britain. The Domestic Cat is an introduced species, and generally supposed to be derived from F. mamicnlata of Egypt and Syria. Moderate-sized Cats, with short tails, rather long limbs, especially the hinder ones, and tufts or pencils of hair on their ears, are called Lynxes. See LYNX.
F. coneolor, the Puma or Couguar, commonly called " Panther" in the United States, is about the size of a Leopard, but of an uniform brown colour, spotted only when young, and is extensively distributed in both North and South America, ranging between the parallels of 60' N. and 50° S. P. °nett, the Jaguar, is a larger and inure powerful animal than the last, and more resembles the Leopard in its colours. It also is found in both North and South America, but with less extensive range, reaching northwards only as far as Texas, and southwards nearly to Patagonia. See JAGUAR. F. parcialis, and several allied smaller elegantly-spotted species inhabiting the intratropical regions of America, are commonly confounded under the name of Ocelot or Tiger Cat. F. yagactrundi, rather larger than the Domestic Cat, with an elongated head and body, and of a uniform brownish-grey colour, ranges from Mata• morns to Paraguay. F. eyra is a small Cat, very Musteline in form, having an elongated head, body, and tail, and short limbs, and is also of a uniform light reddish-brown colour. It is a native of South America and Mexico. F. pctjeros is the Pampas Cat. Four species of Lynx are described from North America, but it is doubtful whether these are specifically distinct from each other and from the Lynx of northern Europe.
Fossil Felidx. - Numerous extinct species of the genus are found in Pleistocene, Pliocene,and even later Miocene deposits in Europe, Asia, and America. Among them is the Cave Lion, F. spelwa, which can scarcely be separated specifically from F. leo' and of which abundant remtins are found in caves in England and other parts of Europe. F. eristata, from the Siwalik Hills, intermediate in size between a. Tiger and Jaguar, is distinguished from the other Felfdm by the shortness of the face as compared with the cranial part of the skull. These and many others, mostly of smaller size, present no greater modifications of form than the various existing members of the genus Felis, and can therefore be properly included within its limits ; but numerous other forms are gradually becoming known, especially through the researches of American palaeontologists, which, though evidently animals of the same general type and therefore to be included in the family Felidfe, depart so much in various details of structure that they must be placed in different genera. As one of the points in which Felis manifests its special ization is the reduction of the number of the molar series of teeth, with concomitant shortening of the jaws, it might be supposed that in the earlier and perhaps ancestral forms these teeth neonld be more numerous and approach more nearly to the primitive or typical number of the heterodont mannnals, viz., seven on each side. This is actually the case. One European form (also recently found in America) to which Gervais has given the name of Pselaitelttrys, of 'Miocene age, has the dentition of Felts with an addition of mie premolar in the lower jaw ; but others have a still larger number, as .elrellwlurtts debilis of Cope from the American Miocene, about the size of a Panther, which has four premolars and a tubercular molar in the upper jaw, and three premolars and two molars in the lower jaw. A tubercular molar in the lower jaw, behind the sectorial, also occurs in -E/nrogate, Dinictis, and Ximraysss. Another tendency to generalization is the existence in sonic forms, as Hoplophonens, of a posterior lobe or heel to the inferior sectorial, found in nearly all Carnivores except the existing Felidte. On the other hand some of the extinct Fe/idie show a most remarkable tendency towards a specialization not occurring, in any of the surviving members of the family, viz., an enormous development of the upper canines, with which is usually associated an expansion downwards and flattening of the anterior part of the ramus of the lower jaw, on the outer side of which the canine lies, when the mouth is closed. In Smilodon ?woe:fens, the Sabre-toothed Tiger, from the caves of Brazil and also from Pleistocene deposits near Buenos Ayres, an animal about the size of a Tiger, these teeth are 7 inches in length, greatly compressed, and finely serrated on the trenchant anterior edges. Similar serial. tions are seen on a much fainter scale in the unworn teeth of modern Tigers. Many modification sof this commonly-called "machuerodont " type have been met with both in the Old and New World to which the names of Mackxrodlis, Drepanadon, Smilodon, lloploplioneus, Dinictis, Pogonodon, Scc,, have been given. A very remarkable form, Ettsmilus, differs from all other known Felines in having only four incisors in the lower jaw, and a pair of small canines separated by a very long diastema from the next teeth, which consist only of one premolar and one sectorial true molar. The lower jaw is enormously expanded towards the symphysis to protect the large upper canines. This animal then, although of Eocene age, appears to form the culminating development of the sabre-toothed or macluerodont dentition, the most specially carnivorous type of structure known.
Cope divides all the known Feline animals into two families, Felidx and .11"19nravidx,1 distinguished by the characters of the foramina at the base of the cranium, the former being of more modern origin than the latter, the members of which arc all extinct, and which seem to connect the Cats with still more primitive types of Carnicora.
Premolars I or-t. Molars or 1. Auditory bulls externally constricted, and divided by a septum. An alisplienoid canal (with very rare exceptions). Carotid canal distinct as a groove on the side of the bulls. Digits usually 5-5, but sometimes the pollex or hallux or both may be wanting. Dorsal vertebr✓ 13 or 14. Limited in distribution to the Old World.
The setininily Cryptoprontime contains the single genus Oryploprocta. Dentition : i g-, e p t, m i = g ; total 36. The teeth generally closely resemble those of the Felidce. The first premolar of both jaws is very minute and early deciduous. The upper sectorial has a very small inner lobe, quite at the anterior part of the tooth. The true molar is very small and placed transversely. The lower sectorial has a large trenchant bibbed blade, and a very minute heel, but no inner tubercle. Skull generally like that of Felis, but proportionately longer and narrower. Orbit widely open behind. Vertebrae: C 7, D 13, L 7, S 3, C 29. Body elongated. Limbs moderate in size. Feet subplantigrade ; five well-developed toes on each, with sharp, compressed, retractile claws. Ears moderate. Tail long and cylindrical.
The only known species, C. ferox, the " Foussa " of the Malagasy, is peculiar to Madagascar, being the largest carnivorous animal in the island. It is about twice the size of the common Cat (5 feet from nose to end of tail), with short close fur of nearly uniform pale brown. Little is as yet known of its habits, except that it is nocturnal, frequently attacks and carries off goats, and especially kids, and shows great ferocity when wounded, on which account it is much dreaded by the natives.
The remaining numerous specific and generic modifications found in the existing animals belonging to this family seem to group themselves mainly into two tolerably distinct groups, distinguishable by the characters of the auditory bulla and neighbouring parts of the base of the skull, and by the structure of the feet. The one form has the genus Viverra or Civet Cats for its most typical representative, and the other Herpestes or the Ichneumons.
Subfamily Viverrinm. - Auditory bulls oval or rather conical, broad and truncated and not everted behind, narrow in front and more or less compressed at the sides. The outer or anterior chamber very small and flat. The meatus with scarcely any inferior lip, its orifice being close to the tympanic ring. Paroccipital process triangular, its apex projecting slightly beyond the bulls. Claws strongly curved and more or less retractile.
Viverra. - Dentition i -a, c p m 3=13 ; total 40. Skull elongated ; facial portion small and compressed. Orbits well-defined but incomplete behind. Vertebrae C 7, D 13, L 7 (or D 14, L 6), S 3, C 22-30. Body elongated and compressed. Head pointed iu front ; ears rather small. Extremities short. Feet small and rounded. Toes short, five on each foot. First toe both on fore and hind feet much shorter than the others. Palms and soles covered with hair, except the pads of the feet and toes, and in some species a narrow central line on the under side of the sole, extending backwards nearly to the heel. Tail moderate or long. A pair of large glandular follicles situated on the perineum (in both sexes), and secreting is most species an oily substance of a peculiarly penetrating odour.
The numerous • species of this genus form a large series, the two extremes of which (liar considerably, but the several sections into which they may be divided blend so into one another that it is difficult to differentiate them sharply. (1) Viverra proper. This includes the largest species. The teeth are stouter and less compressed than in the other sections. The second upper molar especially larger. The auditory Unlla smaller and more pointed in front. Body shorter and stouter ; limbs longer ; tail shorter, tapering. Under side of tarsus completely covered with hair. Claws longer and less retractile. Fur rather long and loose, and in the middle line of the neck and back especially elongated so as to `form a sort of crest or Inane. Pupil circular when contracted. Perinea' glands greatly developed. These characters apply especially to V. cicjlfa, the African Civet, or " Civet Cat" as it is commonly called, an animal rather larger than a common Fox, and an inhabitant of intratropieal Africa. V. zi-betta, the Indian Civet, of about equal size, approaches in many respects, especially in the characters of the teeth and feet and absence of the crest of elongated hair on the back, to the next section. It inhabits Bengal, China, the Malay Peninsula, and adjoining islands. V. tangalunga is a smaller but nearly allied animal from the same part of the world. From these three species and the next the civet of commerce, once so much admired as a perfume in England, and still largely used in the East, is obtained. The animals are kept in cages, and the odoriferous secretion collected by scraping the interior of the perinea' follicles with a spoon or spatula. (2) Viverricula. This section resembles generally the next, but with the whole of the under side of the tarsus hairy. Alisphenoid canal generally absent.
malaccensis, the Besse, inhabiting India, China, Java, and Sumatra, is an elegant little animal, which affords a favourite perfume to the Javanese. (3) Ocnetta. The Genettes are smaller animals, with more elongated and slender bodies, and shorter limbs than the Civets. Skull elongated and narrow. Auditory bulls large, elongated, rounded at both ends. Teeth compressed and sharp-pointed ; a lobe on the inner side of the third upper premolar not present in the previous section. Pupil contracting to a linear aperture. Tail long, slender, ringed. Fur short and soft, spotted or cloudy. Under side of the tarso-metatarsus with a narrow longitudinal bald streak. V. genetta, the common Genette, is found in France south of the river Loire, Spain, south-western Asia, and Africa from Barbary to the Cape. V. felina, senc-galcnsis, figs-inn, and pardalis are other named species, all African in habitat. (4) Fossa. V.. fossa, from Madagascar, may belong to a distinct section or genus, but its structure is very imperfectly known. (5) In some of the smallest species the second upper molar (already reduced to very small dimensions in the Genettes) is absent ; in other respects their dentition agrees with section 3. V. gracilis and V. pardicolor, both from southern Asia, constitute the genus Prionodon of Hors-field ; V. richardsonii, from West Africa, the genus Poiana of Gray. The former has the back of the tarsus hairy, the latter has a narrow naked streak as in the Genettes.
All the animals of this genus are, for their size, extremely active, fierce, and rapacious. They feed chiefly on small mammals and birds.
Arctictis. - Dentition : i c p M i=11)v ; total 40. The posterior upper molar and the first lower premolar very often absent. Molar teeth generally small and rounded, with a distinct interval between every two, but formed generally on the same pattern as Parodoxurns. Vertebrae: C 7, D 14, L 5, S 3, C 34. Body elongated. I lead broad behind, with a small pointed face. Whiskers long and numerous. Ears small, rounded, but clothed with a pencil of long hairs. Eyes small. Limbs short. Soles and palms broad, entirely naked. Tail very long and prehensile. Fur long and harsh. Cxeum extremely small. But one species is known, A. binturong, the Binturong, an inhabitant of southern Asia from Nepal through the Malay Peninsula to the islands of Sumatra and Java. Although structurally agreeing closely with the Paradoxures, its tufted ears, long, coarse, and dark hair, and prehensile tail give it a very different external appearance. It is slow and cautious in its movements, chiefly if not entirely arboreal, and appears to feed on vegetable as well as animal substances. Paradoxurus. - Dentitiou: i ;, c p 4----1--a; total 40. The blunt and rounded form of the cusps of the hinder premolar and the molar teeth distinguishes this genus from most of the members of the family. Vertebrae : C 7, D 13, L 7, 5 3, C 29-36. Head pointed in front. Ears small, rounded. Body long. Limbs moderate. Palms and soles almost entirely naked. Claws completely retractile. Tail long, non-prehensile. The Paradoxures or Palm-Civets are less strictly carnivorous than the other members of the family. They are mostly about the size of the common Cat, or rather larger, and are partly arboreal in their habits. The species are rather numerous, and present considerable variations in the details of the form and size of their molar teeth. They see restricted geographically to southern Asia and the hide- Malayan archipelago. The best known species are 1'. bondar, P. zeylanicus, P. typus, musanga, P. larvata, and P. grayi. P. virgata has been separated from the others, and raised into a distinct genus, Arclogatc, on account of the smallness of the teeth and the elongation of the bony palate. Otherwise it SCUDS not to differ from the others.
Itrandinia contains one species, 11r. binotata, a somewhat aberrant Paradoxure, from West Africa. It is rather smaller than the true Paradoxures, has smaller and more pointed molar teeth, and no mecum. The wall of the inner chamber of the auditory bulls remains through life unossified.
Hemigalea, another modification of the Paradoxure type, contains one species, H. hardtcieleii, from Borneo, an elegant-looking animal, smaller and more slender than the Paradoxures, of light grey colour, with transverse broad dark bands across the back and loins.
Cynogalc also contains one species, C. bennettii, Gray (described by S. Miller under the name of Potamophilus barbatus), from Borneo. This is a curious Otter-like modification of the Viverrine type, having semi-aquatie habits, both swimming in the water and climbing trees, living upon fish, crustacea, small mammals, birds, and fruit. The number and general arrangement of its teeth are as in Paradoxurus, but the premolars are peculiarly elongated, compressed, pointed, and recurred, somewhat as in the Seals, though the molars are tuberculated. The head is elongated, the muzzle broad and depressed. Whiskers very long and abundant. Ears small and rounded. Toes short and slightly webbed at the base. Tail short, cylindrical, covered with short hair. Fur very dense and soft, of a dark brown colour, mixed with black and grey.
Subfamily Herpestin. - Auditory bulls very prominent, and somewhat pear-shaped, the posterior chamber being large, rounded, and generally with its greatest prominence to the outer side. The anterior chamber considerably dilated, and produced into a short inferior wall to the auditory meatus, in -which is a depression or vacuity just below the centre of the opening of the meatus. Sometimes this vacuity is continued into the meatus, forming a narrow fissure. The paroccipital process does not project beyond the bulls, but is spread out and lost (in adult animals) on its posterior surface. Toes straight ; claws lengthened, exserted, non-retractile.
Herpestes. - Dentition : i c i, p sometimes an ; 40 or 36. Teeth of molar series generally with strongly-developed, sharply- pointed cusps. Skull elongated, constricted behind the orbits. Face short and compressed. Frontal region broad and arched. Postorbital processes of frontal and limier bones well-developed, generally meeting so as to complete the circle of the orbit behind. Vertebras: C 7, D 13, L 7, S 3, C 21-26. Head pointed in front. Ears short and rounded. Body very long and slender. Extremities short. Five toes on each foot, the first, especially that on the hind foot, very short. Toes free, or but slightly palmated. Palms naked. Distal portion of soles naked, under surface of tarsus and metatarsus clothed with hair. Tail long or moderate, generally thick at the base, and sometimes covered with more or less elongated hair. The longer hairs covering the body and tail almost always annulated. This genus contains a very large number of animals commonly called Ichneumons, or in India Mongooses, varying in size from that of a large Cat down to a Weasel. They are widely distributed over the African continent and the southern parts of Asia, especially India and the Indo-Malayan archipelago, one species occurring also in Spain. They are mostly terrestrial in their habits, feeding on small mammals and birds, reptiles, especially snakes, eggs of birds and reptiles, and also insects. Sonic species are partially domesticated, being used to keep houses clear of rats, mice, and snakes. II. ichneumon was a sacred animal to the ancient Egyptians. They vary considerably in appearance, some, as H. galera (also called paludinosns and robustus), are larger and heavier, with stouter body, longer limbs, and stronger teeth. Others are small, with very elongated bodies and short legs. The tail also varies somewhat in length, and in the amount of hair with which it is covered. These trivial differences have given rise to the formation by some zoologists of very numerous genera, the characters of which are by no means clearly defined, but the following are the most distinct and generally recognized.
Helogale, premolars I, contains two small South-African species, H. parvula and H. undulata.
Bdeogale contains also two small Ichneumon-like animals, crassicauda and puisa, differing from Herpestes proper in having only four toes on each foot, both pollex and hallux being absent. The orbit is nearly complete, the tail of moderate length and rather bushy.
Cynictis. - Pollex present, but hallux absent. Skull shorter and broader than in Herpestes, rather contracted behind the orbits, which are large and complete behind. Face short. Anterior chamber of the auditory bulla very large. Front claws elongated.
penicillata, from South A frica, All the foregoing Herpestines have the nose short, with its under surface flat, bald, and with a median longitudinal groove. The remaining forms have the nose more or less produced, with its under side convex, and a space between the nostrils and the upper lip covered with close adpressed hairs, and without any median groove.
Iillinogale. - Toes 5-5. Claws of fore feet short, compressed, acute. Under surface of tarsus hairy. Founded on a single specimen from East Africa, R. melleri.
Crossarehus. - Dentition : i 4, c p g, m ; total 36. Snout elongated. Toes 5-5. Claws on fore feet long and curved. Ilallux very short. Under surface of tarsus naked. Tail shorter than the body, tapering. Fur harsh. Species: C. obscurus, the Kusimanse, a small burrowing animal from West Africa, of uniform dark-brown colour ; C. faseiatus; C. zebra; C. gambianms.
Suricata. - A more distinct genus than any of the above. The dental formula as in the last, but the teeth of the molar series remarkably short in the antero-posterior direction, corresponding with the shortness of the skull generally. Orbits complete behind. Vertebrre: C 7, D 15, L 6, S 3, C 20. Though the h&14.1 is short and broad, the nose is pointed and rather produced and movable. Ears very short. Body shorter and limbs longer than in Hopestes. Toes 4-4, the pollex andliallux being absent. Claws on fore feet very long and narrow, arched, pointed, and subequal. Hind feet with much shorter claws, soles hairy. Tail rather shorter than the body. One species only is known, the Suricate, S. tetradactyla; a small grey-brown animal, with dark transverse stripes on the hinder part of the back, front South Africa.
Calidea, and Hemigalidia are names of three slight generic modifications of the Viverrine type, allied to the Herpestinm, but placed by Myatt in a distinct subfamily, They are all inhabitants of Madagascar. The best-known, Calidia elegans, is a lively Squirrel-like little animal with soft fur and a long bushy tail, which climbs and jumps with agility. It is of a chestnut-brown colour, the tail being annulated with darker brown. Catiolictis vittata and striata chiefly differ from the Ichneumons in their coloration, being grey with parallel longitudinal stripes of dark brown.
Rupleres is another form, also from Madagascar, which has been placed in a subfamily apart. It differs remarkably from all the other Viverrithe in the weak development of the jaws and the small size of the teeth, in consequence of which it was, when first discovered, placed inthe order Inseetivora. Dentition : i 3i e ), p an 4 = 40. Vertebras C 7, D 13, L 7, S 3, C 20. But one species is known, E. goudoti.
No alisphenoid canal. Dorsal vertebra' 15. Molars ). Limited to the Old World.
Subfamily Protelitlim. - Auditory bulk divided into two distinct chambers. Premolar and molar teeth very small and simple in character.
This group contains but a single species, belonging to the genus Proteles, P. cristatus, the Aard-Wolf or Earth-Wolf of the Dutch colonists of the Cape, an animal nearly allied to the Hyaenas, but remarkably modified in its dentition, the molar teeth being very small, placed far apart, and almost rudimentary in character (see fig. 119). The canines are long and rather slender. The dental formula is i c p and an Fi-',i--.4=7÷13; total 30 or 32. Vertebra' C 7, D 15,1,5, S 2, C 24. The fore feet with five toes; the pollex, though short, with a distinct claw. The hind feet with four subequal toes. Claws all strong, blunt, subcompressed, and non-retractile. The general external appearance is very like that of a small striped Hymna, but the muzzle is more pointed and the ears larger. It has a copious mane of long hair, capable of being erected, when the animal is excited, along the middle line of the neck and back. It is a native of South Africa, and is a burrowing nocturnal animal, feeding on decomposing animal substances, larva', and termites. Observations upon specimens in captivity indicate that it has neither inclination nor power to attack or feed upon living vertebrated animals.
Subfamily Hymniclee. - Auditory bulk not divided by a septum into two chambers.
Hyrena. - Dentition : t t, c ), p g, in ; total 34. Teeth, especially canines and premolars, very large, strong, and conical. Upper sectorial with a very large, distinctly trilobed blade and a moderately developed inner lobe placed at the anterior extremity of the blade, Molar very small, and placed transversely close to the hinder edge of the last, as in the Felicia'. Lower sectorial consisting of little more than the bilobed blade. Zygomatic arches of cranium very wide and strong. Sagittal crest high, giving attachment to very powerful biting muscles. Orbits incomplete behind. Vertelme: C 7, D 15, L 5, S 4, C 19. Limbs rather long, especially the anterior pair, digitigrade, four subequal toes on each, with stout non-retractile claws. Pollex and hallux only represented by rudimentary metacarpal and metatarsal bones. 'fail rather short. A large post-anal median glandular pouch, into which the largely developed anal scent glands pour their secretion.
The three existing species of llymna (see HY.ENA) are divisible into two sections to which some zoologists assign generic rank.
Extinct Ilyrenid.m. - Hyrenas abounded in Europe from the Upper Miocene to the Pleistocene epoch, and a series of transitional forms from ancient generalized types merging into Viverridse, as Ictitherium and Hymnidis (with additional tubercular molars), leading by gradual modifications during successive geological ages to the species now existing, have been traced by Gaudry. The Cave Hyaena (II. spela'a), once so abundant in Britain and other parts of Europe, is scarcely distinguishable specifically from the existing IL crocuta of Africa; • and extinct forms found in France, described under the names of II. prism and IL arvernensis, are probably the ancestors of IT. striata. The existing II. brunnca seems to have preserved the characters of IT. exinata of the Upper Miocene of Pikermi in Greece with little modification. There is at present no evidence of the existence of this group in America.
Section C YN 0 IDEA.
This section contains a single family, Canidm, or Dog-like animals, which appear to hold an intermediate position between the other two sections, retaining also many of the more generalized characters of the ancient members of the order. The structure of the auditory bulla and adjacent parts of the bones of the skull is quite intermediate between that of the Elur oid and Arctoid forms. In the number and arrangement of the teeth they more nearly approach the primitive heterodont type than any other existing Carnivores. A erecum is always present, sometimes short and simple, but when long it is folded upon itself in a characteristic manner.
The Dogs form a very compact group, composed of numerous species which closely resemble each other in essential characters, though differing considerably externally. The most marked differences are a slight variation in the number of the true molar teeth, which exceed the usual number in the Cape Long-eared Fox (Otocyon), and fall short of it in some other less aberrant forms to which the names of Icticyon and Cyon have been given, and a diminution in the number of toes in the Cape Hunting Dog (Lycaon), which has 4-4, instead of 5-4 as in the remainder of the family. After taking these away, there remain a great number of animals called Dogs, Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes, varying from one another only in the characters of the tail, ears, fur, form of the pupil, and some trifling peculiarities of skull and teeth, upon which some authors have divided them into many genera. These divisions are, however, extremely difficult, if not impossible, to define, on account of the numerous gradual transitions from one form to the other.
Canis. - Pending further investigation, it will perhaps be safest to retain all the species, with the exceptions of Otocyon and Lycaon mentioned above, in the old genus Canis, the most prominent characters of which are the following. Teeth, usually i a, c i, p an 3-11 ; total 42. The absence of the last upper molar (m 3), alone distinguishes this from the generalized den tition of heterodoits (see p. 353), and this tooth is occasionally present in one species (C. eancrivorus). In certain Asiatic species (C. prinuxrus and its allies), which on this account have been separated to form the genus Cyon of Hodgson, the last lower molar (as 3) appears to be constantly absent, and in C. venaticus (genus letieyon, Lund) not only this but also on 2 is usually not developed. The milk dentition is di t, de 1, dm I=.4- ; total 28, - the first permanent premolar having no predecessor. The teeth of both permanent and milk or temporary series are figured at p. 353 (fig. 3). The upper sectorial p 4 consists of a stout blade, of which the anterior cusp is almost obsolete, the middle cusp large, conical, and pointed backwards, and the posterior cusp in the form of a compressed ridge ; the inner lobe is very small, and placed quite at the fore part of the tooth. The first molar is more than half the antero-posterior length of the sectorial, and considerably wider than it is long ; its crown consists of two prominent conical cusps, of which the anterior is the larger, and a low broad inward prolongation, supporting two more or less distinct cusps and a raised inner border. The second molar resembles the first in general form, but is considerably smaller. The lower sectorial in 1 is a very large tooth, with a strong compressed bilobed blade, the hinder lobe being considerably the larger and more pointed, a small but distinct inner tubercle placed at the hinder margin of the posterior lobe of the blade, and a broad, low, tuberculated heel, occupying about one-third of the whole length of the tooth. The second molar is less than half the length of the first, with a pair of cusps placed side by side anteriorly, and a less distinct posterior pair. The third is an extremely small and simple tooth with a subcircular tuberculated crown and single root.
The cranium is more or less elongated, the facial portion tapering forwards and compressed. The jaws elongated. The zygomata moderately strong. The post-orbital processes of the frontal short, leavino. the orbit widely open posteriorly. -Vertebrae: C 7, D 13, L 7, S 3, 0°17-22. Clavicles present, but very rudimentary. Limbs of moderate proportions, digitigrade. Feet shell ; five toes on the fore foot, the pollex much shorter than the others, and not reaching to the ground. Four toes on the hind foot, the hallux being represented by a rudiment of the metatarsal.' All the toes are provided with exserted non-retractile slightly curved and blunt claws, which, being exposed, become worn at the tips. Tail moderate, or rather long, generally somewhat bushy. The pupil of the eye, when contracted, is in some species round, in others elliptical and vertical.
This extensive genus may be considered as truly cosmopolitan. One or more species are found throughout the American continent from Greenland to Patagonia and the Falkland Isles ; and similarly, in the Old World, Europe, Africa, and Asia, with most of the large islands adjacent, and even Australia, have their wild Dogs, though in the last ease they probably belong to a feral race, introduced originally by man. They are generally sociable animals, hunting their prey in packs. Many species burrow in the ground; • none habitually climb trees. Though mostly carnivorous, feeding chiefly on animals they have chased and killed themselves, many, especially among the smaller species, eat garbage, carrion, insects, and also fruit, berries, and other vegetable substances. The species are very numerous, and, as in most other large genera, very ill-defined, few zoologists agreeing as to which of the many slightly different modifications may be considered as local varieties and which true species. Perhaps the best cranial character by which the different members of the genus can be distinguished is that pointed out by Burmeister, viz., that in the animals generally called Dogs, Wolves, and Jackals the post-orbital process of the frontal bone is regularly smooth and convex above, with its extremity bent downwards, whereas in Foxes the process is hollowed above, with its outer margin (particularly of the anterior border) somewhat raised. This modification coincides in the main with that upon which Professor Huxley has recently 2 based his division of the group into two parallel series, the Thooids or Lupine forms and Alopecoids or Vulpine forms, which he characterizes by the presence of frontal air-sinuses in the former, which not only affects the external form but to a still greater degree the shape of the anterior part of the cranial cavity, and the absence of such sinuses in the latter. The pupil of the eye when contracted is round in most members of the first group, and vertically elliptical in the others, but more observations are required before this character can be absolutely relied upon. The form and length of the tail is often used for the purposes of classification, but its characters do not coincide with those of the cranium, as many of the South American Canidw have the long bushy tails of Foxes and the skulls of Wolves. Taking into account various combinations of these and other minor characters, the species may be arranged in the following groups, which some authors have considered as of generic importance.
Thooid or Lupine Series.
(1) Canis proper contains the largest members of the genus, the true Wolves of the northern parts of both Old and New Worlds (C. /alms, &c.), the Jackals of southern Asia and Africa (C. warms, mcsomelas, &c.), and the various breeds of the domestic Dog (C. fa2niliaris), the origin of which is still involved in obscurity. Some naturalists believe it to be a distinct species, descended from one that no longer exists in a wild state; others have sought to find its progenitors in some one of the wild or feral races, either of true Dogs, Wolves, or Jackals; while others again believe that it is derived from the mingling of two or more wild species or races. It is probably the earliest animal domesticated by man, and few if any other species have undergone such an extraordinary amount of variation in size, form, and proportion of limbs, ears, and tail, variations which have been perpetuated and increased by careful selective breeding. See DOG. The Dingo or Australian Dog is met with wild, and also as the domestic companion of the aboriginal people. Dogs were also in the possession of the natives of New Zealand and other islands of the Pacific, where no placental mammals exist naturally, on their discovery by Europeans in the last century. (2) Cyon, wild Dogs of the south-east of Asia, distinguished by slight modifications as C. primmaus, C. dukhenensis, and C. sumatrensis, differ from the above in wanting the small lastfrlower tubercular molar. (3) Lycalopex is a group formed of certain South-American Canidx, distinguished from Canis proper by their longer tails and Fox-like aspect : - C. cancrivorus, C. brasiliensis, C. mclarapus, C. retains, C. falricaudus, C. azarx, C. mcgcllanieats, C. griseus. The last three have been further separated (under the name of Pseadalopex) on account of slight differences in the relative size of the molar teeth, and of their pupil being elliptical when contracted. (4) Nyetcreutes (one species, C. proeyonidcs, from Japan and north-east Asia) has no claims to generic distinction but such as are founded upon its long loose fur, short ears, and short bushy tail, which give it some superficial resemblance to a Raccoon. (5) Ictieyon, with one small species, C. vonaticus, the Bush Dog, from Guiana and Brazil, with close hair, and short legs and tail, has more reason to be regarded as a distinct form, as it is distinguished from all other Dogs by the reduction of its molar teeth to and their comparatively small size. In consequence of this, and its general external characters, it was formerly placed among the /Waste/irk, but its Canine affinities have now been thoroughly established.
-41opecoid or Vulpine Series.
(6) T'ulpes, true Foxes. The species or varieties are numerous and widely spread over North America, Eurasia, and Africa : - C. mi/pcs, the common Fox of Europe ; C. ni/oticus, adustus, and variegatars, Africa; C. flaveseens, mantanas, bengalensis, japonicas, corsw, Asia ; i'de'as, macrourns, velox, North America. The tail of the above is clothed with soft fur and long hair, uniformly mixed ; from them Baird distinguishes, under the name of Uroeyon, other species which have a concealed erect mane of stiff hairs along the upper line of the tail. These have also a shorter muzzle and a wide space between the temporal crests; they are C. Virginian vs and C. littoralis, both from North America. The Arctic Fox (C. lagopus, genus Lcucoeyon, Gray) has the tail very full and bushy and the soles of the feet densely furred below. Its colour changes according to season from bluish-grey to pure white. (7) &ARCMS. Certain small elegant African Foxes (C. cerdo, famelieus, and drama), with very large ears awl corresponding large auditory bulhe, have been separated under the above name.
Lycaon. - This resembles in most of its characters the Dogs of the Lupine series, but the teeth are rather more massive and rounded, the skull shorter and broader, and it has but four toes on each limb, as in Hymna. The one species, L. pietas, the Cape Hunting Dog (fig. 120) from south and east Africa, is very distinct exter nally from all the other CanidEe. It is nearly as large as a mastiff, with large, broadly ovate erect ears, and singularly coloured, being not only variable in different individuals, but unsymmetrically marked with large spots of white, yellow, and black. It presents some curious superficial resemblances to Hyaena crocuta, perhaps a case of mimetic analogy. It hunts its prey in large packs.
Otocyon. - Dentition : i I, c p in ; total 46 or 48. The molar teeth are thus in excess of any other known heterodont mammal. They have the same general characters as in Canis, with very pointed cusps. The lower sectorial shows little of its typical characters, having five cusps on the surface ; these can, however, be identified as the inner tubercle, the two greatly reduced and obliquely placed lobes of the blade, and two cusps on the heel. The skull generally resembles that of the smaller Foxes, particularly the Fennecs. The auditory bulhe are very large. The hinder edge of the mandible has a very peculiar form, owing to the great development of an expanded, compressed, and somewhat inverted subangular process. Vertelirse: C 7, D 13, L 7, S 3, C 22. Ears very large. Limbs rather long. Toes 5-4. One species, 0. inegalotis, from South Africa, rather smaller than a common Fox.
Professor Huxley looks upon this as the least differentiated or most primitive existing form of Canis, regarding the presence of the four molar teeth as a survival of a condition of the dentition exhibited by the common ancestors of the existing Canidm and the existing carnivorous Marsupials. There is, however, at present no palaeontological proof of this, as none of the numerous fossil forms of CanidEe yet discovered have more than the normal number of molars. One of the best known of these is Amphicyon, from the Miocene strata of Europe and America, formerly supposed to have affinities with the Bears, having five toes on each foot, and being possibly plantigrade, but, as the structure of the skull and teeth clearly show, only a generalized Dog, in which the true molars are fully developed. Another genus, Cynodictis, of which many mod!. fications have been described by Filhol from the south of France, approaches the Vivcrridm, and may be a common ancestor of the Cynoid and Eluroid Caritivora.
The section Arctoidea includes a considerable number of forms which agree in the essential characteristics of the structures of the base of the cranium and reproductive organs, and in the absence of a mecum to the intestinal canal. They have no Cowper's glands, and have a rudimentary prostate and a large cylindrical genial bone. All the members of this group have five completely developed toes on each foot.
True molars I (or in Mellivora). No alisphenoid canal. A large group widely diffused, especially in the northern temperate regions of the earth. The different genera are very difficult to arrange in any natural order. They are rather artificially divided, chiefly according to the characters of their feet and claws, into the Otter-like (Lutrine), Badger-like (Meline), and 'Weasel-like (Muste. line) forms.
Subfamily Lutrinse. - Feet short, rounded (except the hind feet of Enhydra). Toes webbed. Claws small, curved, blunt. Head broad and much depressed. Upper posterior molars large and quadrate. Kidneys conglomerate. Habits aquatic.
Lutra. - Dentition i g, c i, p 9n, I; total .36. Upper sectorial with a trenchant trieusped blade, and a very large inner lobe, hollowed on the free surface, with a raised sharp edge, and extending along two-thirds or more of the length of the blade. True molar large, with a quadricuspidate crown, broader than long. Skull broad and depressed, contracted immediately behind the orbits. Facial portion very short; brain ease large. Vertebrae: C 7, D 14-15, L 6-5,53, C 20-26. Body very long. Ears short and rounded. Limbs short. Feet completely webbed, with well developed claws on all the toes. Tail long, thick at the base and tapering, rather depressed. Fur short and close.
The Otters are all more or less aquatic, living on the margins of rivers, lakes, and in some cases the sea, are expert divers and swimmers, and feed chiefly on fish. They have a very extensive geographical range, and so much resemble each other in outward appearance, especially in the nearly uniform brown colouring, that the species are by no means well-defined. See OTTER.
L. sandbachii, a very large species from Demerara and Surinam, with a prominent ridge along each lateral margin of the tail, constitutes the genus Pleronura of Gray.
Aonyx. - Feet only slightly webbed ; claws exceedingly small or altogether wanting on some of the toes. First upper premolar very small, sometimes wanting. True molars very broad and massive, presenting an approach tt the form of the next genus. A. inunguis, South Africa ; A. leptonyx, Java, Sumatra.
Enhydriodon. - E. sivalensis is a large extinct Otter-like animal described by Dr Falconer from the Pliocene strata of the Subhimalityan mountains.
Enhydra. - Dentition : i c +, p vs ; total 32. Differs from all other known Carnivora in having but two incisors on each side of the lower jaw, the one corresponding to the first (very small in the true Otters) being constantly absent. Though the molar teeth generally resemble those of Lulea in their proportions, they differ very much in the exceeding roundness and massiveness of their crowns and bluntness of their cusps. Feet webbed. Fore feet short, with five subequal toes, with short compressed claws. Bind feet very large, depressed, and finlike. The phalanges flattened as in the Seals. The fifth toe the longest and stoutest, the rest gradually diminishing in size to the first, all with moderate claws. Tail moderate, cylindrical.
One species, E. lutris, the Sea-Otter. It is larger than any of the true Otters, and is found only on the coasts and islands of the North Pacific, where it was formerly very abundant, but is gradually becoming more and more rare, on account of the numbers killed annually for their valuable fur. It is said to live on molluscs and crabs as well as fish, and the massive mill-like struc- ture of the grinding teeth, so unlike that of all the known purely piscivorous mammals, would seem to indicate some such diet.
Subfamily MeLinee. - Feet elongated. Toes straight. Claws non-retractile, slightly curved, subeompressed, blunt ; those of the fore foot especially large. Upper posterior molar variable. Kidneys simple. habits mostly terrestrial and fossorial.
Mcphitis. - Dentition i c i, p 22-V, in ; total 32-34.
Upper molar larger than the sectorial, subquadrate, rather broader than long. Lower sectorial with heel less than half the length of the whole tooth. Bony palate terminating posteriorly opposite the hinder border of the last molar tooth. Facial portion of skull short and somewhat truncated in front. Vertebrae : C 7, 1)16, L 6, S 2, C 21. Head small. Body elongated. Limbs moderate, subplantigrade. Ears short and rounded. Tail long, abundantly clothed with very long fine hair. Anal glands largely developed ; their secretion, which can be discharged at the will of the animal, has an intolerably offensive odour, which circinnstance has rendered the Skunks, as they are commonly called, proverbial. They are strictly nocturnal animals, terrestrial and burrowing, feeding chiefly on small mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, worms, roots, and berries. All the known species have a prevalent black colour, varied by white stripes or spots on the upper part. They generally carry the body much arched, and the tail erect, the long loose hair of which waves like a plume over the back. There are many species, all inhabitants of the American continent, over which they have an extensive range. See SKUNK. The South-American species, which have only two upper premolars, and differ in some other characters, have been generically separated under the name of Conepatus.
Arctcmyx. - Dentition : i I, c b p a, in ; total 38. Incisor line curved, the outer teeth being placed posteriorly to the others. Lower incisors proelivons. First premolars often rudimentary or absent. Upper molar much larger than the sectorial, longer in the antero-posterior direction than broad. Lower sectorial with a very large, low, tuberculated heel. Cranium elongated and depressed ; face long, narrow, and concave above. Bony palate extending as far backwards as the level of the gleuoid fossa. Palatal bones dilated. Suborbital foramina very large. Vertebra : C 7, D 16, L 4, S4, C 20. Snout long, naked, mobile, and truncated, with large terminal nostrils, much like those of a Pig. Eyes small. Ears very small and rounded. Body compressed, rather than depressed. Limbs of moderate length and digitigrade in walking. Tail moderate, tapering. A full soft under fur, with longer, bristly hairs interspersed. • The best-known species is A. collaris, the Sand-Bear or Bluta-soor (i.e., Bear-Pig) of the natives, found in the mountains of the north-east of Hindustan and Assam. It is rather larger than the English Badger, higher in its legs, and very Pig-like in general aspect, of a light grey colour, with flesh-coloured snout and feet ; nocturnal and omnivorous. Other species or local varieties have been described by A. Milne-Edwards from North China and Tibet.
3lydaus. - Dentition as the last, but the cusps of the teeth more acutely pointed. Cranium elongated, face narrow and produced. Suborbital foramen small, and the palate, as in all the succeeding genera of this group, produced backwards about midway between the last molar tooth and the glenoid fossa. Vertebra: C7, D 14-15, L 6-5, S 3, C12. head pointed in front ; snout produced, mobile, obliquely truncated, the nostrils being inferior. Limbs rather short and stout. Tail extremely short, but clothed with rather long bushy hair. Anal glands largely developed, and emitting an odour like that of the American Skunks (Mephitis). One species, M. melieeps, the Teledu, a small burrowing animal, found in the mountains of Java, at an elevation of 7000 or more feet above the sea-level.
Mcles. - Dentition : c p in 1; total 38. The first premolar in both jaws extremely minute and often deciduous. Upper molar very much larger than the sectorial, subquadrate, as broad as long. Lower sectorial with a broad, low, tuberculated heel, more than half the length of the whole tooth. The postglenoid processes of the skull arc so strongly developed, and the glenoid fossa is so deep, that the condyle of the lower jaw is firmly held in its place even after all the surrounding soft parts are removed. Vertebrae: C 7, D 15, L 5, S 3,0 18. Muzzle pointed. Ears very short. Body stout, broad. Limbs short, strong, subplantigrade. Tail short. The best-known species is the common Badger (N. taxus) of Europe and northern Asia, still found in many parts of England, where it lives in woods, is nocturnal, burrowing, and very omnivorous, feeding on mice, reptiles, insects, fruit, acorns, and roots. Other nearly allied species, M. lcucurscs and IL chinensis, are found in continental Asia, and 111. anakama in Japan.
Taxidea. - Dental formula as in Metes, except that the rudimentary anterior premolars appear to be always wanting in the upper jaw. The upper sectorial much larger in proportion to the other teeth. Upper molar about the same size as the sectorial, triangular, with the apex turned backwards. Heel of lower sectorial less than half the length of the tooth. Skull very wide in the occipital region ; the lambdoidal crest very greatly developed, and the sagittal but slightly, contrary to what obtains in Macs. Vertebrae C 7, D 15, L 5, S 3, C (?). Body very stoutly built and depressed. Tail short. The animals of this genus are peculiar to North America, where they represent the Badgers of the Old World, resembling them much in appearance and habits. T. americana is the common American Badger of the United States. T. berlandicri, the Mexican Badger, is perhaps only a local variety.
Mellivora. - Dentition i 3i c p ; total 32. Upper sectorial large, with its inner cusp quite at the anterior end of the blade, as in the following genera ; molar much smaller and transversely extended, having a very small outer and a larger rounded inner lobe. Heel of lower sectorial very small, scarcely one-fourth of the whole length of the tooth, and with but one cusp. Tubercular molar absent. Vertebrae : C 7, D 14, L 4, S 4, C 15. Body stout, depressed. Limbs short, strong. Head depressed, nose rather pointed. External ears rudimentary. Tail short. The animals of this genus are commonly called Ratels. .3f. indica, from India, and M. ratel and N. lcuconota from South and West Africa, have nearly the same general appearance and size, being rather larger than a common Badger. Their coloration is peculiar, all the upper surface of the body, head, and tail being ash-grey, while the lower parts, separated by a distinct longitudinal boundary line, are black. They live chiefly on the ground, into which they burrow, but can also climb trees. They feed on small mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects, and are said to be very partial to honey.
Helictis. - Dentition : i 3, c p ; total 38. Upper secfinial with a large bicusped inner lobe. Molar smaller, wider transversely than in the antero-poste•ior direction. Lower sectorial with heel about one-third the length of the tooth. Skull elongated, rather narrow and depressed. Facial portion especially narrow. Infraorbital foramen very large. Head rather small and produced in front, with an elongated, obliquely truncated, naked snout. Ears small. Body elongated. Limbs short. Tail short or moderate, bushy. Several species are described (H. orientalis, moschata, nipalensis, subaurantiaca), all from eastern Asia, small animals compared with the other members of the subfamily, climbing trees with agility and living much on fruit and berries as well as on small mammals and birds.
Ictanyx. - Dentition %, c 1, p m -1; total 34. In general characters the teeth much resemble those of the Polecats (Mustela), being more delicately cut and sharply cusped than in most of the foregoing. Upper molar smaller than the sectorial, narrow from before backwards. Lower sectorial with a small narrow heel and distinct inner tubercle. General form of body musteline. Limbs short. Fore feet large and broad, with five stout, nearly straight, blunt, and non-retractile claws, of which the first and fifth are considerably shorter than the others. Tail moderate, with longer hairs towards the end, giving it a busby appearance. Hair generally long and loose. The best-known species of this genus, I. zorilla, the Cape Polecat, was placed by Curler in the genus Mustcla, by Lichtenstein in Mephitis, and in many characters it forms a transition between these genera. It is about the size of au English Polecat, but conspicuous by its coloration, having broad, longitudinal bands of dark brown, alternating with white. Its odour is said to be as offensive as that of the American Skunks. From the Cape of Good Hope it ranges as far north as Senegal. Another species, I. frotata, from Sennaar, has been described.
Subfamily Flustelinm. - Toes short, partially webbed ; claws short, compressed, acute, curved, often semiretractile. Upper posterior molar of moderate size, wide transversely. Kidneys simple. Terrestrial and arboreal in habits.
Galictis. - Dentition c p ; total 34. Molars small but stout ; upper sectorial with the inner lobe near the middle of the inner border of the tooth. Lower sectorial with heel small, and inner tubercle small or absent. Body long. Limbs short ; claws non-retractile. Palms and soles naked. Head broad and depressed. Tail of moderate length. The best-known species, G. vittata, the Orison (genus Crisonia, Cray), and C. barbetra, the Tayra (genus Calera, Gray), are both South-American ; C. almamandi is an intermediate form.
Mustcla. - Dentition : c p at z ; total 38. Upper sectorial with inner lobe close to the anterior edge of the tooth. Molar nearly as large as sectorial. Lower sectorial with small inner tubercle. Vertebrae : C 7, D 14, L 6, S 3, C 18-23. Body long and slender. Limbs short, digitigrade. Feet rounded ; toes short, with compressed, acute, semiretractile claws. Tail moderate or long, more or less bushy. One species is British, M martes, the Pine Marten ; the remainder inhabit the northern regions of Europe, Asia, and America. Many of the species, as the Sable (3/.
Una), yield fur of great value. See MARTEN.
Putorius. - The dentition differs from that of Mustcla chiefly in the absence of the anterior premolars of both jaws. The teeth are more sharply cusped, and the lower sectorial wants the inner tubercle. External characters generally similar to those of the Martens, but the body is longer and more slender, and the limbs even shorter. They are all small animals, of very active, bloodthirsty and courageous disposition, livieg chiefly on birds and small mammals, and are rather terrestrial than arboreal, dwelling among rocks, stones, and outbuildings. Some of the species, as the Stoat or Ermine (P. ermincus), inhabiting cold climates, undergo a seasonal change of colour, being brown in summer and white in winter, though the change does not affect the whole of the fur, the end of the tail remaining black in all .seasons. This is a large genus, having a very extensive geographical range throughout the Old and New Worlds, and includes the animals commonly known as Weasels, Polecats, Ferrets, and Minks.
Gulo. - Dentition : i 3, c 4, p an ; total 38. Crowns of the teeth very stout. Upper molar very much smaller than the sectorial. Lower sectorial large, with very small heel and no inner tubercle. The dentition, though really but a modification of that of the Weasels, presents a great general resemblance to that of Hyaena. Vertebra: C 7, D 15, L 5, S 3, C 15. Ilody and limbs stoutly made. Feet large and poweaul, subplantigrade, with large, compressed, much curved, and sharp-pointed claws. Soles of the feet (except the pads of the toes) covered with thick bristly hairs. Ears very small, nearly concealed by the fur. Eyes small. Tail short, thick, and bushy. Fur full, long, and rather coarse. The one species, the Wolverene or Glutton, G. luscus, an inhabitant of the forest regions of northern Europe, Asia, and America, much resembles a small Bear in appearance. It is a very powerful animal for its size, climbs trees, and lives on sqnirrels, hares, beavers, reindeer, and is said to attack even horses and cows.
True molars I, obtusely tuberculated. No alisphenoid canal. Habitat exclusively American.
Procyon. - Dentition c p m 1; total 90. The molar giving an almost quadrate form to the crown. First molar with a large tuberculated crown, rather broader than long. Second considerably smaller, with transversely oblong crown. Lower sectorial with an extremely small and ill-defined blade, placed transversely in front, and a large inner tubercle and heel. Second molar as long as the first, but narrower behind, with five obtuse cusps. Vertebra C 7, D 14, L 6, S 3, C 16-20. Body stout. Head broad behind, but with a pointed muzzle. Limbs plantigrade, but in walking the entire sole is not applied to the ground as it is when the animal is standing. Toes, especially of the fore foot, very free, and capable of being spread wide apart. Claws compressed, curved, pointed, and non-retractile. Tail moderately long, cylindrical, thickly covered with hair, annulated, non-prehensile. Fur long, thick, and soft. The well-known Raccoon (Procyon lotor) of North America is the type of this genus. It is replaced in South America by P. cancrivorus.
Bassaris. - A form closely allied to Procyon, but of more slender and elegant proportions, with sharper nose, longer tail, and more digitigrade feet, and with teeth otherwise like, but smaller, and more sharply denticulated. It was formerly, but erroneously, placed among the Vircrritlx. Two species : - B. astula, from the southern parts of the United States and Mexico, and B. sin from Central America.
Bassaricyon. - This name has recently (1876) been given to a distinct modification of the Procyonine type of which at present only two examples are known, one from Costa Rica and the other from Ecuador, which, appearing to be different species, have been named B. gabbi and B. alleni. They much resemble the Kinkajou (Ccreoleptcs) in external appearance, but the skull and teeth are more like those of Procyon and Xasaa.
Xasua. - Dentition as in Procyon, but the upper canines are larger and more strongly compressed, and the molars smaller. The facial portion of the skull is more elongated and narrow. Vertebra : C 7, D 14, L 6, S 3, C 22-23. Body elongated and rather compressed. Nose prolonged into a somewhat upturned, obliquely truncated, mobile snout. Tail long, non-prehensile, tapering, annulated. These animals, commonly called Coatis or Coati-M undis, live in small troops of eight to twenty, are chiefly arboreal, and feed on fruits, young birds, eggs, insects, &e. Recent researches have reduced the number of supposed species to two, N. nariea of Mexico and Central America, and N. ricfa of South America from Surinam to Paraguay.
Cereolcptes. - Dentition : c4-, p -=36. Molars with low flat crowns, very obscurely tuberculated. Skull short and rounded, with flat upper surface, Vertebra : C 7, D 14, L 6, S 3, C 26-28. Clavicles present, but in a very rudimentary condition. Head broad and round. Ears short. Body long and musteline. Limbs short. Tail long, tapering, and prehensile. Fur short and soft. Tongue long and very extensile. But one species of this somewhat aberrant genus is known, C. caudivolvulus, the Kinkajou, found in the forests of the warmer parts of South and Central America. It is about the size of a Cat, of a uniform pale, yellowish-brown colour, nocturnal and arboreal in its habits, feeding on fruit, honey, eggs, and small birds and mammals, and is of a tolerably gentle disposition and easily tamed.
Family A Lunt D.E.
Formed for the reception of one genus, resembling the Procyonidx in the number of true molar teeth, but differing in some cranial characters, especially the presence of an alisphenoid canal, and in its Asiatic habitat.
Ailurus. - Dentition: I t c -, p ; total 38. First lower premolar very minute and deciduous. Molars remarkable for their great transverse breadth, and the numerous cusps of their crowns. Vertebra : C 7, D 14, L 6, S 3, C 18. Skull high and compressed. Facial portion short. Ascending ramus of mandible extremely high. Head round. Face short and broad. Ears large, erect, pointed. Limbs stout, plantigrade, with large blunt non-retractile claws. Tail nearly as long as body, cylindrical, clothed with long hairs. Fur long and thick. One species, A. fulgens, the Panda, rather larger than a Cat, found in the south-east Himalayas, at heights of from 7000 to 12,000 feet above the sea, among rocks and trees, and chiefly feeding on fruits and other vegetable substances. Its fur is of a remarkably rich reddish-brown colour, darker below.
Family UR SID:E.
Tine molars 3, with broad, flat, tuberculated crowns. The three anterior premolars of both jaws rudimentary and often deciduous. Fourth upper premolar (sectorial) with no third or inner root. No alisphenoid canal (except in A flu-ropus). Kidneys conglomerate. Geographical distribution extensive.
Atiluropus. - An interesting anneetant form connecting the true Bears with Adams and with several extinct genera. Dentition : i I, c p m ; total 40. Premolars increasing in size from first to last, and two-rooted except the first. First upper molar with quadrate crown, broader than long. Second larger than the first. Cranium with zygomatic arches and sagittal crest immensely developed, and ascending ramus of mandible very high, giving greater spaces for attachments of temporal muscle than in any other existing member of the order. Facial portion short. Bony palate not extending behind the last molar tooth. An alisphenoid canal. Feet bear-like, but soles more hairy, and perhaps less completely plantigrade. Fur long and thick. Tail very short. One extremely rare species, A. mclanoleueus (fig. 121), discovered by Pere David. in 1869, in the most inaccessible mountains of eastern Tibet. Said to feed principally on roots, bamboos, and other vegetables. It is of the size of a small Brown Bear, of a white colour, with cars, spots round the eyes, shoulders, and limbs black.
Ursus. - Dentition: c p m 1=42. The three anterior premolars above and below one-rooted, rudimentary, and frequently wanting. Usually the first (placed close to the canine) is present, and after a considerable interval the third, which is situated close to the other teeth of the molar series. The second is very rarely present in the adult state. The fourth (upper sectorial) differs essentially from the corresponding tooth of other Carnivores in wanting the inner lobe supported by a distinct root. Its sectorial characters are very slightly marked. The crowns of bath the true molars are longer than broad, with flattened, tuberculated, grinding surfaces. The second has a large backward prolongation or heel. The lower sectorial has a small and indistinct blade and greatly developed tubercular heel. The second molar is of about the same length, but with a broader and more flattened tubercular crown. The third is smaller. The milk teeth are comparatively small, and shed at an early age. Skull more or less elongated. Orbits small and incomplete behind. Palate prolonged considerably behind the last molar tooth. Vertebra : C 7, D 14, L 6, S 5, C 8-10. Body heavy. Feet broad, completely plantigrade. The five toes on each foot all well-developed, and armed with long compressed and moderately curved, non-retractile claws. Palms and soles naked. Tail very short. Ears moderate, erect, rounded, hairy. Fur generally long, soft, and shaggy.
The Bears are all animals of considerable bulk, and include among them the largest members of the order. Though the species are not numerous, they are widely spread over the earth's surface (hut absent from the Ethiopian and Australian regions, and only represented by one species in the Neotropical region), and differ much among themselves in their food and manner of life. They are mostly omnivorous or vegetable feeders, and even the Polar Bear, usually purely carnivorous or piscivorone, devours grass with avidity in slimmer. The various species may be grouped in the following sections. (1) Thalassarctos. Head comparatively small, molar teeth small and narrow. Soles more covered with hair than in the other sections. U. marilimus, the Polar or White Bear of the Arctic regions. (2) Ursus proper. U. arctos, the common Brown Bear of Europe and Asia, a very variable species, to which U. syriacas and isabellimus, if distinct, are nearly related' U. horribilis, the Grizzly Bear, an American represen- tative form ; U. tibetanus, japonicas, and americanus, the Black Bears of the Himalayas, Japan, and North America ; U. ornatu,s, the Spectacled Bear of the l'eruvian Andes. (3) Helaretos. Head short and broad. Molar teeth comparatively broad (but the length still exceeding the breadth). Tongue very long and extensile. Fur short and smooth. U. malayanus, the Malay Bear or Sun Bear. See BEAR.
Mclorms. This differs from the true Bears in the first upper incisor being absent or shed at a very early age, in the very small size of the other teeth, in the very large extensile lips, and in other minor characters. The one species, M. labiatus, the well-known Sloth Bear of India, feeds chiefly on black ants, termites, beetles, fruit, honey, Sze.
The great Cave Bear, the remains of which are found so abundantly in caves of Pleistooene age in Europe, was a true Ursus, and as much or more specialized as any existing species, as it had lost its three anterior premolars in the adult state, but in Ursus arvernansis and older species from the Pliocene they were all retained. Still more generalized forms of Bears, presenting various degrees of transition towards a common Carnivorous type, are represented by the genera Arclotheriam from South America and Hymnaretos of Miocene strata of Europe and Asia, and others which arc not far removed (at least in dental characters) from such primitive Dog-like types as Amphieyon.
The discovery of fossil remains in Eocene and early Miocene formations both in Europe and North America, shows that numerous species of terrestrial carnivorous animals existed upon the earth during those periods, which cannot be referred to either of the sections into which the order has now become broken up. By some zoologists these have been supposed to be Marsupials, or at least to show transitional characters between the Didelphous and Monodelphous subclasses. By others they are looked upon as belonging altogether to the latter group, and as the common ancestors of existing Carnivores and Insectivores, or perhaps rather as descendants or relatives of such common ancestors, retaining more of the generalized characters than any of the existing species. They shade off almost insensibly into numerous other forms less distinctly carnivorous, to the whole of which, including the modern Inseetivora, Cope (to whom we are indebted for our principal knowledge of the American extinct species) gives the name of BUNOTHERIA, those more specially related to the existing Carnivora forming the suborder Creodonta, which is divided into the five families, Aretoeyonidx, Miaeidm, Oxymnidm, Amblyetonid(e, and Meronychidx. These are cases, however, in which the application of the principles of classification adopted in the case of existing species, of which the entire structure is known, and which have become divided into isolated groups by the extinction of intermediate forms, is really impossible. If the generally accepted view of evolution is true, and the extreme modifications pass insensibly into each other by minute gradations (a view the palmontelogical proof of which becomes strengthened by every fresh discovery), there must be many of these extinct forms which cannot be assigned to definitely characterized groups. There arc, however, some which stand out prominently from the others as formed on distinct types, having no exact representatives at present living on the earth. Of these the best-known is that named .7Iymnodon, of which, with the nearly allied Pterodon, many species have been found both in Europe and America. They had the full number of forty-four teeth, grouped in the usual manner, and the incisors, canines, and premolars were formed upon the ordinary Carnivorous type as now seen in the Canidee, the fourth premolar above and the first true molar below being formed upon the " sectorial " plan, but the teeth behind these, instead of being tuberculated as in all existing Carnivora, repeated the characters of time sectorial, and also increased in size, especially in the lower jaw, from before backwards. They thus present some resemblance to the teeth of such carnivorous Marsupials as the Dasyuridm ; but, as the researches of Filhol have demonstrated, their milk dentition follows precisely the rule of existing placental heterodont mammals, and not that characteristic of the Marsupials. They show, moreover, none of the essential cranial modifications which distinguish true Marsupials. The curious American genus Oxmna seems to have been a specialized form of this type, and the European Proviverra or Cynohymnodon of Filhol) forms a complete transition between it and the Viverridee. Iu Arctocyon primmvus, the oldest known Tertiary mammal, from the lowest Eocene beds of La Fire, department of Aisne, France, on the other hand, all the molars were tuberculated, and have been compared with those of the Proeyonidm and also Gymnura, among the Insectivora. The small size of the brain of these early forms is not, as has been supposed, a special Marsupial character, but is common to the primitive forms of all groups of vertebrates. Mesonyx, from the Eocene of North America, seems to have been a very generalized form, with flat blunt claws, and long and slender tail. Cope makes the interesting suggestion that this may have been in the ancestral line of the Pinnipeds, but his statementthat the scaphoid and lunar bones of the carpus were distinct offers a decided difficulty to the acceptance of this view.
These differ from the rest of the Carnivore mainly in the structure of their limbs, which are modified for aquatic progression, - the two proximal segments being very short and partially enveloped in the general integument of the body, while the third segment, especially in the hinder extremities, is elongated, expanded, and webbed. There are always five well-developed digits on each limb. In the hind limb the two marginal digits (first and fifth) are stouter and generally larger than the others. The teeth also differ from those of the more typical Carnivora. The incisors are always fewer than The molar series consists generally of four premolars and one molar of very uniform characters, with never more than two roots, and with conical, more or less compressed, pointed crowns, which may have accessory cusps, placed before or behind the principal one, but are never broad and tuberculated. The milk teeth are very small and simple, and are shed or absorbed at a very early age, usually either before or within a few days after birth. The brain is relatively large, the cerebral hemispheres broad in proportion to their length, and with numerous and complex convolutions. There is a very short mecum. The kidneys are divided into numerous distinct lobules. There are no Cowper's glands. Mammw two or four, abdominal. No clavicles. Tail always very short. Eyes very large and exposed, with flat cornea. The nostrils close by the elasticity of their walls, and are opened at will by muscular action.
The animals of this group are all aquatic in their mode of life, spending the greater part of their time in the water, swimming and diving with great facility, feeding mainly on fish, crustaceans, and other marine animals, and progressing on land with difficulty. They always come on shore, however, for the purpose of bringing forth their young. They are generally marine, but they occasionally ascend large rivers, and some inhabit inland seas and lakes, as the Caspian and Baikal. Though not numerous in species, they are widely distributed over the world, but occur most abundantly on the coasts of lands situated in cold and temperate zones. The suborder is divisible into three well-marked families : - the Otariidce or Sea Bears, which form a transition from the Fissiped Carnivora to the Seals • the Trichechidx, containing the Walrus ; and the Phocitim or typical Seals.
Family OTARI IDE.
When on land the hind feet are turned forwards under the body, and aid in supporting and moving time trunk as in ordinary quadrupeds. A small external ear. Testes suspended in a distinct external scrotum. Skull with post-orbital processes and alisphenoid canal. Palms and soles of feet naked.
Otaria. - Dentition : 4, c p 4, m oir 2 ; total 34 or 36.
First and second upper incisors small, with the summits of the crowns divided by a deep transverse groove into an anterior and a posterior cusp of nearly equal height ; the third large and canine-like. Canines large, conical, pointed, reeurved. Molars and premolars, usually t, of which the second, third, and fourth are preceded by milk teeth shed a few days after birth ; sometimes (as in fig. 123) a sixth upper molar (occasionally developed on one side and not the other) ; all with similar characters, generally uuiradicular ; crown moderate, compressed, pointed, with a single principal cusp, and sometimes a cingulum, and inure or less developed anterior and posterior accessory cusps. Vertebrae : C 7, D 15, L 5, S 4, C