reptiles london species north american paris families
SOLENOGLYPIIES. Anterior maxillary teeth perforated and iso-lated : 2 families and 13 genera.
The progress made in ophiology from the time of the appearance of this work down to the present period consists rather in the increase of our knowledge of the great variety of species and genera than in the further development of the system. Gray, Reinhardt, Peters, Giinther, Cope, Bocage, Jan, Krefft, and others described a large number of forms, so that the number of those known to Dumeril and Bibron has ngw been perhaps trebled or quadrupled. Unfortunately,' no general work corresponding to the present state of science exists. But two works published subsequently to the Erpetologie generale are indispensable to the student.
The first is the Catalogue of the Specimen,s of Snakes in the Collection of the British Museum, of which the first part, containing the Viperine Snakes, Water-Snakes, and Boas, by J. E. GRAY, appeared in 1849, and the second, containing the Colubrines, by A. GUNTHER in 1858. The classification, which was much behind its time, was fixed by the former of the two authors, so that the latter had to accommodate the arrangement of his part to that of his predecessor. However, he strongly opposed the application of the character of grooved posterior teeth to the formation of large sections and generally adopted the principle advocated by Schlegel, whose generic groups were raised into families. A great number of Snakes unknown to Dumeril are described in these catalogues, whilst others which happened not to be represented in the British Museum are omitted.
G. JAN in his Elenco sistematico degli Ofidi descritti, e disegnati per l' Iconografia generale (Milan, 1863, 8vo) gene-rally adopts the families created by Giinther, but institutes under each two divisions, Aglyphodonta and Glyphodonta. Jan's great merit is the publication of his Iconographic generale des 0 phicliens (Milan, 1860-763), in which he figures all species which were in the Milan Museum or lent to him by other institutions, and which thus forms an invaluable aid in the determination of species. The author died during the progress of the work, but it was continued by his artist, Sordelli. No descriptive letter-press worthy of the name accompanies this work.
The anatomy of Ophidians has hitherto received less attention than that of the other Reptilian orders. Be-sides the information contained in general works, we refer here only to two important special treatises : - Rathke, Entwicklungsgesehiehte der Natter, Konigsberg, 1839, 4to ; and Parker, 022 th,e Structure and Development of the Skull in th,e Common Snake (Tropidonotus natrix), London, 1879, 4to.
Chelonians. - Of ante-Cuvierian authors who paid special attention to this suborder the following deserve!' special mention : - J. G. WALEAUM,4 J. G. SCHNEIDER,' J. D. SCHOEPF,6 and A. F. SCHWEIGGER.7 Five OT SiX distinct types of Chelonians were soon recognized, and appear also in Cuvier's Regne Animal, viz., Testudo, Emys, Chelys, Trionyx, CheIonia with Sphargis. These types were at first recognized as genera, and raised by the sub-sequent authors to the rank of families, in which many more genera were distinguished, the -arrangements merely differing in the various methods of subordination of the different families.
The anatomy of Tortoises was investigated chiefly by C. Pecrault, who gave a detailed description of one of the Gigantic Land Tortoises in Mem. Ac. Sc. Paris, iii. (1666 - 69) ; by Cuvier in the Ossemens fossiles ; by Wiedemann in Arch. f. Zool. und Zoot., 1802 ; by Geoffroy St Hilaire in Ann. Aius., xiv.; and especially by L. H. Bojanus,' who published an anatomical monograph of Emys europma, in which all parts are illustrated in detail, the plates being accompanied by an explanatory text. H. Rathke2 studied their development, and L. Agassiz3 and W. K. Parker4 that of the Turtles.
The most complete systematic and descriptive work is that by J. E. GRAY. He engaged in the study of Tortoises at various times, subdividing the principal groups, as the materials grew under his hands, at first principally on the ground of external characters, and afterwards of such craniological features as seemed to him of generic value.3 ALEXANDER STRAUCH contributed two painstaking me-tnoirs,3 the second of which is especially valuable as it contains a collection of all the published facts concerning the distribution of Tortoises over the globe. The authors mentioned associated Sphargis with Chelonia, the later ones generally as the type of a distinct family, all the marine Turtles being comprised in a section Pinnata or Euereta (Stannius) ; and it was only COPE who recognized in the want of specialization of the skeleton of the Leathery Turtle sufficient grounds for separating it into a distinct section, Athecw.
In noticing the principal faunistic works, we omit the majority of the older and antiquated publications, and almost all treatises which appeared in periodicals, as their existence can be readily ascertained by reference to works Europe. - (1) T. Bell, A History of British, Reptiles ; 2d. ed., London, 1849, 8vo. (2)' S. Nilsson, Scandinavisk Fauna, pt. iii.; Amfibierne, al ed., London, 1860, 8vo. (3) A. Strauch, " Die Schlangen des Russischen Reichs," 3.112n. Ac. Sc. St Petersburg, xxi. 1873, 4to. (4) H. Schlegel, De Dieren van Nederland : Kruipencle Dieren, Haarlem, 1862, 8vo. (5) F. Leydig, Die in Deutschland lebenden Arlen der Saurier, Tiibingcn, 1872, 4to ; and Ueber die einheimischen Schlangen, Frankfort, 1883, 8vo. (6) E. Schreiber, .Eferpetologia Europma, Brunswick, 1875, 8vo. (7) V. Fatio, Faune des Vertgres de la Suisse, vol. iii. of Hist. nat. des Reptiles et des Batraciens, Geneva, 1872, 8vo. (8) C. L. Bonaparte, Iconografia della Fauna Italica , v ol. "Ainfibi," Rome, 1832-41, fol. (9) E. de Betta, Erpetologia delle provincie Venete e del Tirol° mcridionalc, Verona, 1857, 8vo. (10) A. Strauch, " Essai d'une Erpetologie de l'Algede," Ment. Acad. Sci. St Petersburg, 1862, 4to. (11) . LaMste, Essai d'une Faune lIerpetologique dela Gironde, Bordeaux, 1876, 8vo. (12) J. von Bedriaga, Die Amphibicn und Reptilien Griechenlands, Moscow, 1882, 8vo.
Persia. - W. T. Blanford, Eastern Persia, vol. ii., London, 1876, 8vo.
Japan,. - H. Schlegel, Fent= Japonica - Reptiles, Leyden, fol.
East Indies. - (1) P. Russel, Account of Indian Serpods, collected on the coast of Coromandel, containing Descriptions and Drawings of each Species, London, 1796, fol., and A Continuation of an Account of Indian Serpents, London, 1801-3, fol. (2) H. Schlegel, Abbildungcn newer oder unvollstitnelig bekannter Amphibien Dusseldorf, 1837-44, text 8vo, atlas fol. (3) J. E. Gray and Har'dwicke Illustrations of Indian Zoology, London, 1830-32, fol. (4) T. Cantor Catalogue of Reptiles inhabiting the Malayan Peninsulet and Island's, Calcutta, 1847, 8vo. (5) A. Giinther, Reptile; of British India, London, 1864, fol. (6) W. Theobald, Catalogue of the Reptiles of British India, Calcutta, 1876, 8vo. (7) J. Fayrer, The Thanatophidia of India, London, 1874, fol. (8) J. Anderson, Anatomical and Zoological Researches, comprising an account of the Zoological Results of the two Expeditions to Western Yunnan, London 1878, 4to.
Af rica. - (1) Description de l'Egyptc - Iiistoire naturelle - Reptil Paris, fol., 1809, &c. (2) A. Smith, Illustrations of the Zoology of South, Africa, London 8vo, 1849. (3) W. Peters, Naturwissen,- schaftliche Reise ?tack' Mossambigue - Zoologie, "Amphibien," Berlin, 1882, 4to.
North America. - (1) R. Harlan, American Herpetology, or Genera of the North American Reptilia, with a Synopsis of the Species, Philadelphia, 1827, 8vo. (2) J. E. Holbrook, North American Her-petology, or a Description of the Reptiles 'inhabiting the United States, 5 vols., with numerous col. plates, Philadelphia, 1836-43, 4to. (3) D. H. Storer, "Report on the Reptiles of Massachusetts," in Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., iii., 1841, pp. 1-65. (4) J. E. De Kay, Zoology of New Y ork, vol. iii. " Reptiles and Amphibia," Albany, 1842, 4to. (5) S. F. Baird and'S. Girard, Catalogue of North Asn,eriean .Reptiles in the 3fuseum of the Smithsonian Institution, pt. i. " Serpents " Washington, 1853, 8vo. (6) Id., Reports upon Reptiles in Repos: ts of Explorations for a Railroad from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean, Washington, 1859, 4to. (7) L. Agassiz, Contributions to the Natural History of th,e United States of America, vol. ii., " North American Testudinata," Boston, 1857, 4to. (8) S. Garman, " On the Reptiles and Batrachians," Hem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, 1883, 4to. (9) H. C. Yarrow, Ch,eek-List of the North American Reptiles and Batrachians, with Catalogue of the Spe,cimens in the U. S. .National Museum, Washington, 1883, 8vo. (10) E. D. Cope is the author of numerous memoirs and papers in the various North American periodicals.
Tropical America. - (1) Prince Maximilianvon Wied, Abbildungen, zur Naturgeschichte Brasiliens, Weimar, 1822-31, fol., and Beitritge zur Naturgesehichte von Brasilien, " Amphibien," Weimar, 1825, 8vo. (2) J. B. Spix, Sespentunt Brasiliensium, species nom, Munich, 1824, fol.; Id., .Ranm et Testudinis Brasiliensis species 91017X, Munich, 1825, fol.; Id., Antimalia nova sive spe,cie,s nom Lae,ertarum guas itinere per Brasiliam annis 1817-20, jussu et auspiciis Maxinziliani Josephi I., Bavarix regis, suscepto collegit et deseripsit, &c., Munich, 1825, fol. (2) A. F. A. Wiegmann, Herpcto-logia mexicana, pars i., Saurorum species amplectens, 13erlin, 1831, fol. (4) J. J. v. Tschudi, Untersuchungen fiber die Fauna peruasza auf einer Reim in Peru withrend der Jahn 1838-4, St Gall, 1846, fol. (5) Guichenot, in C. Gay's Historia fisica y politica de Chile, ii.," Reptiles " Paris, 1848, 8vo, atlas fol. (6) Cocteau and Bibron, in Ramon de 'la Sagra's Histoire physique, politigu,e et nedurelle de de Cuba - Reptiles, Paris, text 8vo, atlas (7) F. de Castelnau's Expedition dans les parties centrales de l'Amerique du Sud - Zoologie - Reptiles, by A. Guichenot, Paris, 1855, 4to. (8) C. Girard, .Reptiles (from Chili) in U. S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere, vol. ii., Washington, 1855, 4to. (9) S. F. Baird, U. S. Exploring Expedition, vol. xx., " Herpetology," Philadelphia, 1858, atlas fol. (10) Dumeril and Bocourt, Mission scientifigue an Mexique et dans l'Amerigne Centrale - Etude,s sur les Reptiles et les Batraciens, Paris, 1870, 4to (in progress). (11) A. Glinther, in Salvin and Godman's Biologia Centrali-Americana - _Reptiles, London, 1885, 4to (in progress). (12)E. D. Cope, numerous papers in the various North American periodicals. , Australia. - (1) J. E. Gray and A. Giinther treat of the Lizards in Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. " Erebus" and" Terror," London, 1844, 1875, 4to. (2) G. Krefft, The Snakes of Australia, Sydney, 1869, 4to. (3)W. Peters and J. Doria, in YInn. 11-12IS. CC71011.,