temple marble built arch probably remains columns wall called forum
AVGVSTO .S.P.Q.R. IMPP . CAESS . SEVERVS . ET . ANTONINVS . PII . FELIC AVGG . R[ESTITVERWNT ; part of the last word only now exists.6 In the narrow space between the temples of Concord and Ves-pasiau (only about 7 feet in width) a small brick and concrete mdicula stands against the Tabularimn. This has been wrongly called a shrine of Faustina, on the authority of a small inscribed pedestal found near it ;7 but there is clear constructional proof that it is contemporary with the temple of Vespasian, and is there-fore of the time of DonNitian.8 It may possibly have been a shrine dedicated to Titus, whose name does not occur in the insciiption of the adjoining temple, though the catalogue in the Curiosuin, Reg. ix., mentions a dedication to both father and son.9 The next building is the Porticus XII. Deormn Consentium, a large marble platform facing the Clivus Capitolinus, with a row of small rooms or shrines partly cut into the tufa rock of the hill behind. 'This conjunction of twelve deities was of Etruscan origin; they were six of each sex and were called Senatus Deorum (Varro, L.L., viii. 70, and De lie Rust., 1)." The columns are of cipol-lino Nvith Corinthian caps ; on the frieze is an inscription record-ing a 'restoration by Vettius Prmtextatus, prmfect of the city in 367 A.D. Under the marble platform is a row of seven small rooms, the brick facing of which is of the Flavian period, used as offices (schola) for scribes and prtecones of the tediles. It is usually- called the Schola Xanthi from an inscription, DOW lost, recording its re-storation by A. Fabius Xanthus and others, and the erection of seven silver statues of gods (Gruter, Inscr., 170, The arch of Severus stands by the rostra, across the road on the north-east side of the Forum ; the remains of the ancient travertine curb show that originally the road went along a rather different line, and was probably altered to make room for this great arch. It was built in 203 A.D., after victories in Parthia, and was origin-ally set up in honour of Severus and his two sons Caracalla (here called M. Aurelius Antoninus) and Geta. Caracalla, after muwler-ing Geta, erased his name from all monuments to his honour in Rome. Representations of the arch on coins of Sevenrs show that its attic Nvas surmounted by a chariot of bronze drawn by six horses, in which stood Severus crowned by Victory ; at the sides were statues of Caracalla and Geta, with an equestian statue at each angle. The arch, except the base, which is of marble-lined travertine, is built of massive blocks of Pentelie marble, and has large crowded reliefs of victories in the East, showing much deca-dence from the best period of Roman art.
The central space of the Forum is paved with slabs of travertine, much patched at various dates ; it appears to have been marked out into compartments with incised lines (see Plate VII.), the use of which is not known.12 Numerous clamp-holes all over the paving show where statues and other ornaments once stood. The recorded nnmber of these is very great, and they must once have thickly crowded a great part of the central area.. Two short marble walls or plutei covered with reliefs, discovered in 1872, stand on the north side. Their use and original position are not known, as the rough travertine plinth on which they have been set is evidently of late date. Each of these marble screens has (on the inside) reliefs of a fat bull, boar, and ram, decked out with sacrificial wreaths and vatic - the suovetaurilia. On the outside arc scenes in the life of Trajan : one has the emperor seated on a suggcstus instituting a charity for destitute children in 99 A.D. - a scene shown also in one of his first brasses - with the legend ALMI[ENTA] ITALIAE ;13 at the other end the emperor stands on the rostra, on which the two tiers of beaks are shown ; he is addressing a crowd of citizens. The backgrounds of this and the other relief are of great topographical interest. In the first is shoNvn the long line of arches of the Basilica Julia, with (on the left) what is probably the temple of Castor and the arch of Augustus. On the right are the statue of Marsyas and the sacred fig-tree (liens ruminalis),)4 which stood on the Comitium. On the other slab the emperor is seated on the rostra (this part is broken), while in front a crowd. of citizens arc bringing tablets and piling them in a heap to be burnt. This records the remission by Trajan of some arrears of debt due to the imperial treasury (Spartian, 7). The background here represents ag,ain the Basilica Julia, with (on the right) the Ionic temple of Satium and the Corinthian temple of Vespasian. Between them is an arch, which may be that of Tiberius. On the left the fig-tree and the statue of Marsyas are repeated. Other explanations of these reliefs have been given, but the above appears the most probable.1 Towards the other end of the Forum are re-mains of a large concrete pedestal. This is usually called the base of the equestrian statue of Domitian (Statius, Si/v., 22), which stood in front of the Edes Juni ; but its brick facing shows that it is much later than Domitian's time, and, moreover, Domi-tian's statue was destroyed immediately after his death.
The seven cubical brick and concrete structures, once faced with marble, which line the Sacra Via, are not earlier than the time of Constantine.2 They are probably the pedestals of honorary columns, such as those shown in the relief on Constantine's arch, mentioned above. The column erected in honour of the tyrant Phocas by Smaragdus in the eleventh year of his exarchate (608) is still standing. It is a fine marble Corinthian column, stolen from. sonic earlier building ; it stands on rude steps of marble and tufa. The name of Phocas is erased from the inscription ; but the date shows that this monument was to his honour. Remains of other small marble structures are shown in Plate VII., but what they are is not known. In the 4th century a long brick and concrete build-ing faced with niarble was built along the whole south-east end of the Forum, probably a row of shops. They were destroyed by Comm. Rosa's order a few years ago. Countless fragments of other buildings, reliefs, and statues are strewn. all over the Forum. Many of these are of great interest ; pieces of large granite columns which probably stood on the seven pedestals mentioned above aro lying in various places ; some of these appear to have been deco-rated with bronze reliefs, the iron fastenings of which, run with lead, still exist3 In addition to the walls of Roma Quaclrata (see above), a few remains only now exist earlier in date than the later years of the republic ; these are mostly grouped near the Scalve Caci (see No. 11 in fig. 17) and consist of small cellaa and other structures of un-known use.4 They are partly built of the soft tufa used in the wall of Romulus and partly of the hard tufa which resenables peperino. Valious names, such as the "hut of Faustulus " and the "Auguratorium," have been given to these very ancient remains, but with little reason. One thing is certain, that the buildings were respected and preserved even under the empire and were probably regarded as sacred relics of the earliest times. Remains of more than one temple, probably of the early republican period, exist near this west angle of the Palatine ; these had peristyles with Tuscan columns of tufa stuccoed and painted. The larger of these (see 14 in fig. 17) has been called conjecturally the temple of Jupiter Victor (Liv., x. 29 ; Ov., Fast., iv. 621). It stands on a levelled platform of tufa rock, the lower part of which is excavated into quarry chambers, nsed in later times as water reservoirs. Two ancient well-shafts lined with tufa communicate with these sub-terranean hollows. Another extensive building of hard tufa of the republican peiiod exists in the valley afterwards covered by the Flavian palace ; part of this can be seen under the so-called Aecademia (21 in fig. 17). Not far from the top of the Scahe Caci are the massive remains of some large cella, nothing of which now exists except the concrete core made of alternate layers of tufa and peperino. It was probably once lined with marble. By it a noble colossal seated figure of a goddess was found, in Greek marble, well modelled, a work of the 1st century A.D. The head and arms are missing, but the figure is probably rightly called a statue of Cybele ; and frona it her name has been conjecturally given to this temple. Augustus in the Manumentum A neyranum records AEDEM. MA.TRIS . MAGN/E . IN . PALATIO FECI ; but it is more probable that his temple to Cybele formed part of the magnificent group of buildings in the area of Apollo (see below). Some interesting early architectural fragments are lying near this temple ; they consist of drums and capitals of Corinthian columns, and part of the cornice of the pediment, cut in peperino, and thickly coated with hard white stucco to imitate marble. Between this and the temple (so called) of Jupiter Victor are extensive remains of a large sort of porticus, with tufa walls and travertine piers, also republican in date. The use and name of this building are unknown. The temple of Jupiter Stator, traditionally vowed by Roinulus during ' his repulse by the Sabines (Liv., i. 12), stood near the Porta Mugionis, and therefore near the road leading up to the Palatine 1 Sacra Vi..t6 This has been identified with the ruined concrete 1 podium (40 in fig. 17), the position of which suits the above indi-cations • but the admixture of travertine, brick, and even marble with the tufa of the concrete shows that no trace here remains of any early building. On the tufa blocks of a shaft leading down to a large drain by the side of these remains are incised ui large letters - MOLE" - possibly the names of Greek stone-masons (Dioeles, Philocrates); the form of the letters shows that this inscription is as early as the 2d or even 3d century B.c.
Remains of extensive lines of buildings in early opus reticulatum exist on the upper slopes of the Palatine, all along the Velabrum side, and on the south-west side as far as the so-called Domus Gelotiana. These buildings are constructed on the ruins of the wall of Romulus, a great part of which has been cut away to make room for them ; their base is at the foot of the ancient wall, on the shelf cut midway in the side of the hill ; their top reached originally above the upper level of the summit They are of various dates and cannot be identified with any known buildings. Part is ap-parently of the time of the emperor Tiberius, and no doubt belongs ' to the Domus Tiberiana mentioned by Suetonius (Tib., 5 ; comp. Tac., Hist., i. 27, and iii. 71) ; this palace covered a great part of tho west corner of the hill. Of about the same date is a very interesting and well-preserved private house built wholly of opus reticulatum ; it is usually called the house of Livia. It has a small atrium, out of which open the biennium and the tablinum with a room (ala) on each side, all handsomely decorated with.good paintin,„vs of mythological and domestic scenes, probably the work of Greek artists, as inscriptions in Greek occur, - e.g., EPMHC, under the figure of Hermes, in a picture representing his deliver-ance of Io from Argus.6 The back part of this house was threo stories high, and is divided into a great number of very small rooms mostly bedrooms. The house is built in a sort of hole agains't the side of an elevation, so that the upper floor behind is level with an ancient paved road. The dampness caused by this is counteracted and kept off the paintings by a lining of flange-tiles over the external walls, under the stucco, thus forming an air-cavity all over the surface. From the back of the house, at the upper level, a long subterranean passage leads towards the Flavian palace, and then, turning at right angles and passing by the foundations of the so-called temple of Jupiter Victor, issues in the ancient tufa building mentioned above (20 in fig. 17). Another crypto-porticus starts near this house and communicates with the long semi-subtermnean passage by which the palaces of Caligula and Dornitian are connected (19 in fig. 17). It is ornamented. with very beautiful stucco reliefs of cupids, beasts, and foliage, once painted and gilt. This private house is probably that of Germani-cus, into which the soldiers who killed Caligula in the long crypto-porticus escaped, as described by Josephus (Ant. Jud., xix. 1; see also Suet., Cal., 58). Some inscribed lead pipes were found in this house ; sonie pieces bear the inscription IVLIAE . AVG., prob-ably the daughter of Titus.
The palace of Augustus and the Area Apollinis 7 occupied a great portion of the central part of the Palatine (see 47 and 48 in fig. , 17) ; the splendour of its architecture and the countless works of art in gold, silver, ivory, bronze, and marble, mostly the produc- . tion of the best Greek artists, which adorned this magnificent group of buildings must have made it the chief glory of this splendid city. It was approached from a road leading out of the Surma Sacra Via along the line of the present Via di S. Bonaven-tura ; the entrance, pronably the Arens of Pliny (H./V., xxxvi. 4, 10), led through lofty propyltea into a very extensive peristyle or porticus, with (at least) fifty-two fluted columns of Numidian giallo ; the rest was of white Luna and Athenian marble. In the centre of this enclosure stood the great octostyle peripteral temple of Apollo Palatinus, so called to distinguish it from another temple of Apollo outside the Porta Carmentalis, remains of which exist under the Albergo di Catena near the Piazza Montanara. This temple was begun by Augustus in 36 p.c.,' after his Sicilian victory over Sextus Pompeius, and finished iu 28 B.c.2 A glowing account of the splendours of these buildings is given by Propertius (El., ii. 3). Inside the cella were statues of Apollo between Latona and Diana by Scopas, Praxiteles, and Timotheus respectively (Plin., H.N., xxxvi. 4); round the walls were statues of the nine Muses (Juv., vii. 37). The pediment had sculpture by Bupalus and Arehermus of Chios (Plin., xxxvi. 4), and on the apex was Apollo in a quadriga of gilt bronze. The double door was covered with ivory reliefs of the death of the Niobids and the defeat of the Gauls at Delphi. The Altera inscription records that Augustus sold eighty silver statues of himself and with the money " offered golden gifts" to this temple, dedicating them both in his own name and in the names of the original donors of the statues.3 The Sibylline books were preserved under the statue of Apollo (Suet., Aug., 31) ; and within the cella were vases, tripods, and statues of gold and silver, with a collection of engraved gems dedi-cated by Marcellus (see Plin., xxxvii. 5). On each side of the portieus was a large library, one Latin and the other Greek ;4 and a third side of the great enclosure was occupied by a large hall where the Senate occasionally met (Tac., Ann., ii. 37), in the centre of which stood a bronze colossus of Augustus,' 50 feet high (Plin., H. Y., xxxiv. 18). Round the porticus, between the Numidian marble columns, were statues of the fifty Danaids, and opposite them their fifty brideg,rooms on horseback (see schol. on Pers., ii. 56), many fragments of which have been found. In the centre before the steps of the temple stood an altar surrounded by four oxen, the work of Myron (Proper., EL, ii. 3, 7). 'Within the same area, was a small temple of Vesta (C.L L., i. p. 392), dedicated ou 2Sth Apiil 12 B.C., when Augustus was elected pontifex maximus ;2 the sacred block or altar symbolically called Roma Quadrata, sur-rounded by a circular trench called the Mundus, was also in some part of this great group of buildings. On the side towards the Circus Maximus was the palace of Augustus, which was excavated in 1775, and drawings of which were published by Guattani.3 A great part shown by him has since then been destroyed, and all is now concealed ; the plan (48 in fig. 17) is taken from Guattani. The whole group is described by Ovid (Trist., iii. 1). Augustus also rebuilt the temple of Victory,4 which gave its name to the Clivus Victoriie ; this temple stood on the site of a prehistoric altar (Dionys., i. 32), and was more than once rebuilt, - e.g., by L. Postumius, 294 B.C. (Liv., x. 33). In 193 B.C. an mdicula to Victory was built near it by Poreius Cato (Liv., xxxv. 9). Remains of the temple and a dedicatory inscription were found in 1725-28 5 110t far from the church of S. Maria Liberatrice ; the temple was of Parian marble, with Corinthian columns of Numidian giallo antic°. The Area Apollinis and its group of buildings suffered in the fire of Nero, and were restored by Domitian. The whole was filially destroyed in the great fire of 363 (Aminian, xxiii. 3), but the Sibylline books were saved.
The palace of Caligula occupies the northern angle of the Palatine, and extends over the Clivus Victorix, a long way towards the Clivus Palatinus (see fig. 17). This part of the Palatine tvas once occupied by the Lucus Vest; with 'the Sacellum Volupire and many fine private houses. Among these were the dwellings of Q. Lutatius Catulus, Q. Horteusius, Catiline, Scaurus, Crassus (Plin., H.N., xxxvi. 3, 24), whose house was afterwards bought by Cicero,8 and the house of Clodius, the view of which Cicero threatened to block out.7 Many other wealthy Romans had houses on this part of the Palatine, so that the cost of the site for Caligula's enormous palace must have been very great. The part now existing is little more than the gigantic substructures built to mise the principal rooms to the level of the top of the hill. The lowest parts of these face the Nova Via, opposite the Atrium Vestre, aud many stories of small vaulted rooms built in mixed brick and opus reticulatum rise one above the other to the higher levels.8 The palace extends over the Clivus Victorbe, supported on lofty arches so as to leeve the road unblocked ; many travertine or marble stairs lead to the upper rooms, some starting from the Nova Via, others from the Clivus Yietorim. el1013110US extent is referred to by Pliny (H. N., xxxvi. 24). A large proportion of these substructures consist of dark rooms, some with no means of lighting, others with scanty borrowed light. Many small rooms and stairs scarcely 2 feet wide can only have been used hy slaves. The ground floors on the Nova Yia and the Clivus Yietorin appear to have been shops, judg-ing from their wide openings, with travertine sills, grooved for the wooden fronts with narrow doors, which Roman shops seem always to have had, - very like those now used in the East. The upper and principal rooms were once richly decorated with marble linings, columns, and mosaics ; but little of these now remains. By the side of the Clivus Victorire still exists the start of the bridge by which Caligula joined the Capitolium to the Palatium (Suet., Cal., 22) ; it is partly supported on corbelled arches, richly decorated with delicate stucco reliefs ; the floor is of mosaic, and a piece of the open marble screeu or balustrade is still in, Ala. The intermediate parts of Caligula's bridge were removed after his death, and the exit from the palace is blocked by a brick-faced wall, very little later in date than the palace itself. Near the bridge are some rooms very handsomely ornamented with a combination of coloured stucco reliefs and painting on the flat. The upper part of the palace, that above the Clivus Victorire, is faced wholly with brickwork, no opus reticidatuni being used, as in the lower portions by the Nova Via. This possibly marks a difference of date, and the occurrence of brick stamps of the latter part of the 1st century A.D. ill various parts of the palace shows that a large portion of it is later than the time of Caltuda.
The next great addition toc'the buildings of the Palatine was the magnificent suite of state apartments built by Domitian, over' a deep natural valley running across the hill (see fig. 17). The valley was filled rip and the level of the new palace raised to a considerable height above the natural soil. Remains of a house, decorated with painting and rich marbles, exist under Domitian's peristyle, partly destroyed by the foundations of cast concrete which cut right through it. The floor of this house shows the original level, far below that of the Flavian palace. The south angle of this great building adjoins the palace of Augustus, and it is connected with the palace of Caligula by a, branch subterranean passage leading into the earlier crypto-porticus. These two build-ings continued to be used as the private apartments of the emperor, the Flavian block consisting only of state rooms ; the words A_EDES I'VBLICA were inscribed upon it by Nerva to show its public charac-ter. It consists of a large open peristyle, with columns of Oriental marble, at one end of which is the grand triclinium with ma.gnifi-cent paving of opus sectile in red and green basalt and coloured marbles, a piece of which is well preserved ; next to the triclinium, on to which it opens with large windows, is a nymphwum or room with marble-lined fountain and recesses for plants and statues. On the opposite side of the peristyle is a large throne-room, the walls of which were adorned with rows of pavonazetto and giallo columns and large marble niches, in which were colossal statues of porphyry and basalt ; at one side of this is the basilica, with central nave and apse and narrow aisles, over which were galleries. The apse, in which was the emperor's throne, is screened off by open marble caneelli, a part of which still exists. It is of great interest as show-ing the origin of the Christian basilica ; S. Agnese fuori le Mura is exactly similar in arrangement (see BASILICA, V01. p. 417).9 On the other side of the thronc-room is the lararium, with altar and pedestal for a statue ; next to this is the grand staircase, which led to the upper rooms, now destroyed. The whole build-ing, both floor and walls was covered with the richest Oriental marbles, including all the varieties mentioned on p. 808. Out-side were colonnades or portiens, - on one side of cipollino, on the other of travertine, the latter stuccoed and painted. The magni-ficence of the whole crowded with fine' Greek sculpture and covered with polished marbles of the most brilliant colours, is difficult now to realize ; a glowing description is given by Statius (Si/v., iv. 11, 18 ; see also Plut., Poplie., 15, and Mart., viii. 36). Doors vrere arranged in the throne-room and basilica so that the emperor could-slip out unobserved and reach by a staircase (30 in fig. 17) the crypto-portiens which communicates with Caligula's palace. The vault of this passage was covered with inosaie of mixed marble and glass, a few fragments of which still remain ; its walls were lined with rich marbles ; it was lighted by a series of windows in the springing of the vault. This, as well as the Flavian palace, appears to have suffered more than once from fire, and in many places important restorations of the time of Severus, and some as late as the 4th century, are evident. In 1720-26 extensive exca-vations were made here for the Farnese duke of Parma, and an immense quantity of statues and marble architectural fragments were discovered, many of which are now at Naples and elsewhere. Among them were sixteen beautiful fluted columns of pavonazetto and giallo, fragments of the porphyry statues, and an immense door -sill of Peutelic marble, now used for the high altar of the Pantheon ; these all came from the throne-room. The excavations were carried on by Bianchini, who published a book on the subject.1° In the middle of the slopes of the Palatine, towards the Circus Maximus, are considerable remains of buildings set against the wall of Romulus and covering one of its projecting spurs. This series of rooms with a lone. Corinthian colonnade has been sup-posed to be part of the Dbomus Gelotiana, from which Caligula used to watch the races in the circus below (Suet., Cal.,18). Little, however, of the existing remains is as early as the reig,n of Caligula, and the marble porticus apparently dates from the time of Severus. Tbe rooms were partly marble- lined and partly decorated with painted stucco, on which are incised a number of interesting in-scriptions and rude drawings. Here in 1857, was found the cele-brated (so-called) caricature of the 'Crucified Christ, now in the Museo Kircheriano, but which, more probably, has a Gnostic meaning.11 The inscription CORINTHVS . EXIT . DE . PEDAGOGIO suggests that this building was at one time used as a school, per-haps for the imperial slaves. A number of soldiers' names also occur, e.g., HILARVS . MI . V. D . N. (IIilarus miles veteranus domini nostri); some are in mixed Latin and Greek characters, with many varietie,s of mis.spelling. After one pair of names is inscribed PEREG, showing that they belonged to the foreign corps called Peregrini, probably stationed here as guards to the imperial resi-dences on the hill above. Most of these inscriptions appear to be as early as the 1st century a.n.1 These interesting graffiti have in great part perished during the last few years, and soon none will remain.
t. The great stadium of the Palatine (see 50 in fig. 17) was begun by Domitian, mainly built by- Hadrian, and much altered or restored by Severus. The greater part of the outer walls and the large exedm or apse at the side, with upper floor for the emperor's seat, are of the time of Hadrian, as is shown by the brick stamps, and the character of the brick facing, which much resembles that of the Flavian time (bricks inches and joints inch thick).2 The stadium is surrounded with a colonnade of engaged shafts, formina. a sort of aisle with gallery over it. Except those at the curved end, which are of Hadrian's time, these piers are of the time of Severus, as are also all the flat piers along the outer wall, - one opposite each of those in the inner line. This shows either that the stadium must have been left by Hadrian in an unfinished state, or else that it suffered seriously from a fire or earthquake before the reign of Severus.
s In addition to the stadium, Fladrian built a number of very handsome rooms forming a palace on the south-east side and at the south-west end of the stadium. These rooms were partly destroyed and partly hidden by the later palace of Seams, tbe foundations of which in many places cut through and render useless the highly decorated rooms of Hadrian (53 in fig. 17). The finest of these which is now visible is a room with a large window opening( into the stadium near the south angle ; it has intersecting barrel vaults, with deep coffers, richly ornamented in stucco. The oval structure shown in the plan (50 in fig. 17), with other still later additions, belong,s to the 4th or 5th century, when the stadium was no long,er used for races ; some of the walls, of opus mixtum, which cut up and disfigure this noble building appear to be the work of Theodoric, c. 500.
The palace of Septimius Severus was very extensive and of enormous height ; it extends not only all over the south angle of the Palatine but also a long way into the valley of the Circus Maximus and towards the Ccelian. This part (like Caligula's palace) is canied on very lofty arched substructures so as to form a level, uniform with the top of the bill, on whic'h the grand apartments stood. The whole height from the base of the Palatine to several stories above its summit must have been enormous. Little now remains of the highest stories, except part of a grand staircase which led to them Extensive baths, all nchly decorated with marble linings aud mosaics in glass and marble, cover a great part of the top of the hill. These and other parts of the Palatine were supplied with water by an aqueduct built by Nero in continuation of the Clandian aqueduct, some arches of which still exist on the slope of the Palatine (56 in fig. 17 ; see Spart., Sept. See., 24). The palace of Severus was restored and enlarged by Heliogabalus and Severus Alexander.8 One of the main roads up to the Palatine passes under the arched substructures of Severus, and near this, at the foot of the hill, at the south angle, Septimius Sevenis built an outlying part of his palace, a building of g,reat splendour dedicated to the Sun and Moon called the Septizonium, probably from its seven stories or zonm '(sce Jordan, Bull. Inst., 1872, p. 145). It has been doubted whether it can really have been as much as seven stories high ; but this is not improbable when we consider the enormous height of the rest of Severus's palace, reachilw from the foot of the Palatine to far above its summit. Part of the°Septi-zonium existed as late as the reign of Sixtus V. (1585-90), who destroyed it in order to use its marble decorations and columns in the new basilica of St Peter ; drawings of it are given by Du Perac, Vestigj di Roinct, 1575, and in other works of that century.4 The Vella and Germalus were two outlying spurs of the Palatine.5 Owing to the g-rcat alterations that have been made in the contour of tbe hill it is now very difficult to identify these ancient districts (see Ann. Inst., 1865, p. 347). The Germalus or Cermalus was probably on the side towards the Velabrum, while the Yelia may be identified with that elevated ground between the Palatine and the Esquiline on which the temple of Venus and Rome and tho arch of Titus now stand. It is evident that this was once much loftier and more abrupt than it is now ; a great part of it was cut away when the level platform for the temple of Venus and Rome was formed. The foundations of part of Nero's palace along the road between this temple and the Esquiline are exposed for about 20 to 30 feet in height, showing a corresponding lowering of the level here, and the bare tufa rock, cut to a flat surface, is visible on the site of Hadrian's great temple ; that the Velia was once much loftier is also indicated by the story of the removal of Valerius Publicola's dwelling.8 On the Vella and the adjoining Summa Sacra Via were two temples which Aug,ustus rebuilt.7 The " Ades Larum '' is probably the "Sacellum Larum " mentioned by Tacitns (Ann., xii. 24) as one of the points in the line of the ponicerium of Roma Quadrate. The Sacra Via started at the Sacellum Strenim an unknown point on the Esquiline, probably near the baths of 'Titus (Varro, L.L., v. 47), in the quarter called Cerolia. Thence it probably (iu later times) passed round part of the Colosseum to the slope leading up to the arch of Titus on the Velia ; this piece of its course is lined on one side by extensive baths, attributed to Heliogabalus (45 in fig. 17), and farther back, against the cliff of the Palatine, are remains of Nero's enormous palace (see 42 in fig. 17). From the arch of Titus or Summa Sacra Via the original line of the road has been altered (see Plate VII.); the angle at which the scanty remains of the Regis are set probably shows the early direction of the Sacra Via in passing on to the temple of Vesta. Its later course was more to the north-east, passing at a sharp angle from the arch of Titus to the front of Constantine's basilica, and on past the temple of Faustina. It is uncertain whether the continuation of this road to the arch of Severus was in later times called the Sacra Via or whether it rejoined its old line along the Basilica Julia by the cross-road in front of the .tEdes Julii. Its original line past the temple of Vesta was completely built over in the 3d and 4th centuries, and clumsily-fitted pavements of marble and travertine occupy the place of the old basalt blocks.8 The course of the Nova Via 9 (see figs; 16 and 17) along the palace of Caligula " was exposed in 1882-84. According to Varro (L.L., vi. 59) it was a very old road. It led up from the Velabnun, probably winding along the slope of the Palatine, round the north angle under the church of S. Maria Liberatrice. The rest of its course, gently ascending towards the arch of Titus, is now exposed, as are also the stairs, possibly the &aim Anularice, which connected it with the Clivus Victorice at the Porta Romanula ; a continuation of these stairs, still unexcavated, led down to the Forum."
The extent of the once marshy. Velabrum (Gk., Fexas) is not known, though part of its site is indicated by the church of S. Giorgio in Velabro ; Yarro (L.L., vi. 24) says, " extra urbein an-tiquam fuit, non longe a porta Romanula." It was a district full of shops (Plant., Capt., iii. 1, 29 ; Hor., Sat., ii. 3, 229). The Vicus Tuscus on its course from the Forum to the Circus skirted the Velabrum (Dionys., v. 26), from which the goldsmiths' arch was an entrance into the Forum Boarimn (comp. Dionys., i. 40).
The Capitoline Hill, once called Mons Saturnius (Varro, L. L., v. 42), consists of two peaks, the Capitolium and the Arx,12 with an intermediate valley (Asylum). The older name of the Capi-toll= was Mons Tarpeins (Varro, L. L., v. 41). Livy (i. 10) mentions the founding of a shrine to Jupiter Ferebius on the Capitolium by Romulus ; 23 this summit was aftenvards occupied by the great triple temple dedicated to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, a triad of deities worshipped under the names of Tinia, Maine, and Menrva in every Etruscan city. This great temple was (Liv., i. 38, 53) founded by Tarquin I., built by his son Tarquin II., and dedicated by M. Horatius Pulvillus, consul suffectus in 509 n.c.14 It was built in the Etruscan style, of peperino stuccoed and painted (Vitr., iii. 3), with wooden architraves, wide intercolumniations, and painted terra-cotta statues.'4 It was rebuilt many times ; the original temple lasted till it was burnt in 83 B.C. ; it was then re-founded in marble by Sulla, with Corinthian columns stolen from the temple of Olympian Zeus in Athens (Plin., xxxvi. 5), and was completed and dedicated by Q. Lut. Catulus, whose name appeared on the front. Augustus, in spite of hi.; having carried out part of the work, did not introduce his name by the side of that of Catulus. It was again burnt by the Vitellian rioters in 70 A.D., and rebuilt by Vespasian in 71.18 Lastly, it was burnt in the three (lays' fire of Titus's reign' and rebuilt with columns of Pentelic marble by Domitian ; the gilding alone of this last rebuilding is said to have cost millions sterling (Plut., Publ., 15). There has been much controversy as to the site of this temple and that of Juno Moneta on the Arx ; but there is an overwhelming mass of evidence to show that the Capitolium is the peak where the Palazzo Caffarelli stands, and that the church of Am Ceeli occupies the Arx. Livy (xxxv. 21) mentions the fall of a mass of rock from the Capitolium into the 'Vim Jugarius, which passes close under the Caffarelli summit, and is not near the opposite peak. Moreover, extensive sAstructions of tufa and peperino have been exposed on the eastern peak, the form of which appears to fit this nearly square triple temple, and in 1875 a fragment of a fluted column was found, of such great size that it could only have belonged to the temple of Jupiter. Its actual limits have not been clearly made out, and therefore the truth of Dionysius's description (iv. 61) cannot be proved.= The temple is represented on many coius, both repub-lican and imperial ; these show that the central cella was that of Jupiter, that of Minerva on his right, and of Juno on his left, The door was covered with gold reliefs, which wero stolen by Stilicho (e. 390 ; Zosim., v. 33), and the gilt bronze tiles (Plin., xxxiii. 18) on the roof were partly stripped off by Genseric in 455 (Procop., De Bell. Vaud., 6), and the rest by Pope Honorius I. in 630 (Marliano, Topogr., ii. 1). Till 1348, when the steps up to Am Ceeli were built, there was no access to the Capitol from the back ; hence the three ascents to it mentioned by Livy (iii. 7, v. 26-28) and Tacitus (Hist., iii. 71-72) were all from the inside of the Servian circuit. Even on this inner side it was defended by a wall, the gates in which are called " Capitolii /ores" by Tacitus. Part of the outer wall at the top of the tufa rock, which is cut into a smooth cliff, is visible from the modern Vicolo della Rupe Tarpeia ; this cliff is traditionally called the Tarpeian rock, but that must have been on the other side towards the Forum, from whence it was visible, as is clearly stated by Dionysius (vii. 35, viii. 78).3 Another piece of the ancient wall has recently been exposed, about half-way up the slope from the Fortun to the Arx. It is built of soft yellow tufa blocks, five courses of which still remain in the existing frag-ment. The large temple of Juno Moneta (" the Adviser") on the Arx, built by Camillus in 384 B.C., was used as the mint ; hence moneta="inoney" (Liv., vi. 20).
A large number of other temples and smaller shrines stood on the Capitoline Hill, a vrord used broadly to include both the Capitolitim and the Arx.4 Among these were the temple of Honos and Virtus, built by Marius, and the temple of Fides, founded by Numa, and rebuilt during the First Punic War. Both these were large enough to hold meetings of the Senate. The temple of Jupiter Tonans 5 was built by Augustus (Suet., Aug.,29), near the great temple of Jupiter. Other shrines existed to Venu.s Victrix, Ops, Jupiter Custos, and Concord - the last under the Arx (Liv., xxii. 33) - and luau others, as well its a triumphal arch in honour of Nero, and a crowd of statues and other works of art (see Plin., xxxiii. 4 ; xxxiv. 17, 18, 19 ; xxxv. 36, 45 ; xxxvi. 6, 8), so that the whole hill must have been a mass of architectural and artistic magnificence, the spoils of the whole Hellenic world.
The so-called Tabularium occupies the central part of the side towards the Forum ; it is set on the tufa rock, which is cut away to receive its lower story. It derives its name from an inscription found there in the 15th century, quoted by Poggio (see Gruter, Awn, 170, 6); but that name was given to many buildings in Rome (Liv., iii. 56, xliii. 16), and there is no reason to suppose that this specially was known as the Tabularium (comp. Virg., Geor., ii. 501), Catulus, who was also the dedicator of the great temple of Jupiter (Tac., Hist., iii. 72 ; Dion Cass., xliii. 14), was consul in 78 B.C., but part of this building is probably much earlier in date. Its outer walls are of peperino, its inner ones of tufa or concrete ; the Doric arcade has c,apitals and architrave of tmver-tine.6 A road paved with basalt passes through the building along this arcade, entered at one end from the Clivus Capitolinus, and at the other probably from the Gradus Monetw, a flight of steps leading from the temple of Concord and the Forum up to the temple of Juno Moneta on the Arx (see Plate VII.). The entrance from the Clivus Capitolinus is by a wide flat arch of peperino most beautifully jointed ; the other end wall has been mostly destroyed. The back of this building overlooked the Asylum or depression between the two peaks. From this higher level a long steep stair-case of sixty-four steps descends towards the Forum ; the doorway at the foot of these stairs has a fiat arch, with a circular relieving arch over it ; it was completely blocked up by the temple of Ves-pasian (see fig. 1). This was probably the door where the Vitellian rioters broke into the Capitoliutu (Tac., iii. 71).7 Great damage was done to this building by the additions of Boniface VIII. and Nicholas V., as well as by its being used as a salt store, by which the walls were much corroded.6 The Imperial Fora.
The Forum Julium (see fig. 18), with its central temple of Venus Genitrix, was begun in 49 B.C. after the battle of Pharsalia by Julius and completed by Augustus.3 Being built on a crowded site it was somewhat cramped, and the ground cost nearly a hundred million sesterces.1° Part of its circuit wall, with remains of five arches, exists in the Via Marmorella ; and behind is a row of small vaulted rooms, probably shops or offices.71 The arches are fiat, slightly cambered, with travertine springers aud keys ; the rest, with the circular relieving arch over, is of tufa ; it was once lined with slabs of marble, the holes for which exist. Foundations of the circuit wall 'exist under the houses towards S. Adrian°, but the whole plan has not been made out Palladio (Arch., ir. 31) de-scribes excavations made here, and the discovery of remains of a fine temple, probably that of Venus Genitrix.72 The forum of Augustus (see fig. 18) adjoined that of Julius on its north-east side ; ft contains the temple of Mars Ultor, built to wall of peperino, nearly 100 feet high, with travertine string-courses and cornice ; a large piece of this wall still exists, and is one of the most imposing relics of ancient Rome. Ag,ainst it are remains of the temple of Mars, three columns of which, with their entablature and marble ceiling of the peristyle, are still standing ; it is Cor-inthian in style, very richly decorated, and built of fine Luna marble. The cella is of peperino, lined with marble ; and the lower part of the lofty circuit wall seems also to have been lined with marble on the inside of the forum. The large archway by the temple (Arco dei Pantani) is of travertine. Palladio (Arch., iv.) and other miters of the 16th century give plans of the temple and circuit wall, showing much more than now exists. The temple, which was octastyle, with nine columns and a pilaster on the sides, occupied the centre, and on each side the circuit wall formed two large semicircular apses, decorated with tiers of niches for statues.1 The Forum Pacis, built by Vespasian, was farther to the south-east ; the only existing piece, a massive and lofty wall of mixed tufa and peperino, with a travertine archway, is opposite the end of tbe basilica of Constantine. The arch opened into what was probably the Ternplum Sacrm Urbis, which contained a plan of the city of Rome. The original plan was probably burnt with the whole group of buildings in this forum in 191, in the reign of Com-modus (Dion Cass., lxxii. 24) ; but a new plan engraved on marble was made, and the building restored in concrete and brick by Sevens. The north-east end wall, with the clamps for fixing the marble plan, still exists, as does also the other (restored) end wall with its arched windows towards the forum (see fig. 19) ; one hundred and sixty--seven fragments of this plan were found c. 1560 at the foot of the wall to which they were fixed, and are now pre-served in the Capitoline Museum ; drawings of the seventy-four pieces now lost are preserved in the Vatican2 (Cod. Vat. 3439). The whole has been published in a valuable work by Professor Jordan, Forma Urlds Romx, Berlin, 1875-82. The fragments which relate to the Forum Magnum are given on Plate VII. The circular building at the end facing on the Sacra Via is an addition built by Maxentius in honour of his deified son Romulus ; like the other buildings of Maxentius, it was rededicated and insclibed with the name of his conqueror Constantine.3 The original stone build-ing of Vespasian was probably an archive and record office ; the name Templum Sacrm Urbis is with much probability given to it by Jordan, partly on the authority of an inscription now in the Vatican (see Fonna Urbis Rowe). The fine bronze doors at the entrance te the temple of Romulus are much earlier than the build-ing itself, as are also the porphyry columns and very rich entabla-ture which ornament this doorway. Pope Felix IV. (526-530) made the double building into the church of SS. Cosmo e Damian°, using the circular domed. temple of Romulus as a porch.4 The chief building of Vespasian's forum was the Templum Paeis,5 dedi-cated in 75, one of the most magnificent in Rome, which contained a very large collection of works of art.
The forum of Nerve. (see fig. 18) occupied the narrow strip left between the fora of Augustus and Vespasian ; being little more than a richly decorated street, it was called the Forum Transitorimn or Forum Palladium, from the temple to Minerva which it con-tained. It was begnn by Domitian, and dedicated by Nerva in 97 (see Suet., DOM. , 5 ; Mart., Er., i. 2, 8). Like the other imperIal fora, it was surrounded by a pepenno wall, not only lined with marble but also decorated with rows of Corinthian columns sup-porting a rich entablature with sculptured frieze. Two columns aud part of this wall still exist ; on the frieze are reliefs of weav-ing, fulling, and various arts which were under the protection of Minerva. A great part of the temple existed till the time of Paul V., who in 1606 destroyed it to use the columns elsewhere.6 In the reign of Severus Alexander a series of colossal bronze statues, some equestrian, were set round this fonnn ; they represented all the previous emperors who had been deified, and by eaeh was a bronze column insclibed with his "res geste" (Lamprid., Hist. Aug. : Sev. Alex., 28).
The forum of Trajan with its adjacent buildings was the last and, I at least in size, the most magnificent of all ; it was in progress from r. 100 to 117. A great spur of hill, which connected the Capitoline with the Quirinal, was cut away to make a level site for this enor-mous group of buildings. It consisted (see fig. 20) of a large dipteral peristyle, with curved projections, lined with shops on the side. That against the slope of the Quirinal, three stories high, still partly exists. The main entrance was through a tiumplial arch (Dion Cass., lxviii. 29), from which probably were taken most of the fine reliefs used by Constantine to decorate his arch. Aurei of Trajan show this' arch and other parts of his forum.2 The opposite side was occupied by the Basilica. Ulpia (Jordan, For. Ur. Rom.), part of which, with the column of Trajan, is now visible ; none of the columns, which are of grey granite, are in situ and the whole restoration is misleading. Part of the rich paving Onental marble is genuine. This basilica contained two large libraries (Dion Cass., lxviii. 16 ; Aul. Gell., xi. 17).
The Columna Cochlis (so called from its spiral stairs) is, includ-ing capital and base, 97 feet 9 inches high,' i.e., 100 Roman feet ; its pedestal has reliefs of trophies of Dacian arms, and winged Victories, with an inscription recording the enormous mass of hill which was removed to form the site (comp. Dion Cass., lxviii. 16). On the shaft are reliefs arranged spirally in twenty-three tiers, scenes of Trajan's victories, containing about 2500 figures. Trajan's ashes were buried in a gold urn under this column (Dion Cass., lxviii. 16) ; and on the summit was a colossal gilt bronze statue ef the eniperor, now replaced by a poor figure of St Peter, set there by Sixtus V.2 Beyond the column stood. the temple of Trajan . completed by Hadrian ; itslounclations exist under the buildings at the north-east side of the modern piazza, and many of its granite columns have been found. This temple is shown on coins of Hadrian.3 The architect of this magnificent group of buildings was Apollodorus of Damascus (Dion Cass., lxix. 4), who also de-signed many buildings in Rome during Hadrian's reign.' In addi-tion to the five imperial fora, and the Forum Magnum, Olitorium, and Boarium, mentioned above, there were also smaller markets for pigs (Forum Suarium), bread. (Forum Pistorium), and fish (Forum Piscarium), all of which, with some others, popularly but wrongly called. fora, are given in the regionary catalogues.
Besides the temples mentioned in previous sections remains of many others still exist in Rome. The circular temple by the Tiber in the Forum Boarium, formerly thought to be that of Vesta, may be the temple of Hercules mentioned by Macrobius (Saturn., iii. 6), Solinus (Collect., i. 11), and Livy (x. 23). Its design is similar to that of the temple of Vesta in the Forum (fig. 15), and, except the entablature and upper part of the cella, which are gone, it is well preserved (see Piale, Tempi() di Vesta, 1817). The neigh-bouring Ionic temple, popularly called of Fortuna Virilis, is of special interest from its early date, probably the end of the 2d century B.c. The complete absence of marble and the very spa.ring use of travertine, combined with the simple purity of its design, are all proofs of its great antiquity. It has a prostyle tetrastyle portico of travertine, and a short cella of tufa with engaged columns ; the bases of these and of the angle columns are of travertine. The frieze has reliefs of ox skulls and garlands. The whole was oriffinallv stuccoed and minted so that the different show. Fig. 21 gives the Irian, showing the hard traver-tine used at the points of greatest pres-sure, while the main walls with the half columns are of the weaker and softer tufa. The dedication of this temple is doubtful ; on the whole it appears most probable that it is the temple to Fortuna (without any affix) founded by Servius Tullius (Dionys., iv. 27) in the Forum Boarium, not the one to Up/ 'Avapeta (Fors Fortuna ?) mentioned as being by the river (comp. Plut., De Fort. .Rom., 5). Ten columns of what is probably the temple of Ceres, Liber, and Libera exist in situ., built up in the end and side walls of the church of S. Maria in Cosmetlin. These have well sculptured composite capitals and wide intereolumniation, - probably a survival of the original design of this temple, which was Tuscan in style (Vitr., iii. 3, 5 ; Phu., H.N., xxxv. 45). It was founded by Aulus Posturains, dictator in 497 B. C. , and dedicated by Spurius Cassius, consul in 494 B.c.
(Dionys., vi. 17, 94). In 31 B. C. it was burnt (Dion Cass., 1. 10), and was rebuilt by Augustus and Tiberius (Tac., Arm, ii. 49) ; but the existing columns belong to a still later restoration. The temple stands close to the carceres of the Circus Maximus, in the Forum Boarium. Within the walls of S. Niccolo in Carcere (see fig. 22) in the Forum Olitorium are preserved remains of the tufa cellT and travertine columns of three small hexastyle peripteral temples, two Ionic and one Tuscan, set close side by side.6 A group, as is indi-cated on fig. 22. Two of these temples were pro-bably those to Spes and Juno Sospita (Liv.,xxi. 62, xxxii. 30); the third may be that of Apollo Medicus (Liv., xl. 51), as suggested by Burn (Rome and Campagmz, 1871, note i. p. 306). Near the Forum Olitorium, in the modern Ghetto, are extensive remains of the large group of buildings included in the Porticus Octavite, two of which, dedicated to Juno Regina and Jupiter Stator, with part of the en-closing porticus and the adjoining temple of Hercules Musarum, are shown on a fragment of the marble plan. The Porticus OctaviT, a large rectangular space enclosed by a double line of columns, was built in honour of Oetavia by her brother Augustus on the site of the Porticus Metelli, founded in 146 B. C. TillS must not be con-founded with the neighbouring Portions Octavia founded by Cn. Octavius, the conqueror of Perseus (Liv., xlv. 6, 42), in 168 B.C., and rebuilt under the same name by Augustus, as is recorded in the Aneynean inscription. The whole group was one of the most magnificent in Rome, and contained a large number of works of art by Phidias and other Greek sculptors. The existing portico, svhich was the main entrance into the portions, is a restoration of the time of Severus in 203. The church of S. Michele and the houses be-hind it conceal extensive remains of the porticus and its temples (see Ann. hist., 1868, p. 108 ; and Contigliozzi, Portici di Ottaria, 1861).6 Remains of a large peripteral Corinthian temple are built into the side of the "Dogana di Terra," near Monte Citorio. Eleven marble columns and their rich entablature are still iu situ with the corresponding part of the cella wall of peperino ; in 187'8 a piece of the end wall of the cella was discovered, and, under the houses near, part of a large peribolus wall, also of peperino, forming an enclosure with columns all round the temple nearly 380 feet square (see Bull. Comm. Arch. Ron., vi., pl. iv., 1878). The dedication of this temple is not known ; it has commonly been identified with the temple of Neptune (Dion Cass., lxvi. 24), built by Agrippa, and surrounded by the Porticus Argonautarum (Dion Cass., liii. 27; Mart. iii. 20, 11) ; but its details appear to be later than the reign of Augustus.? Another not improbable theory is that it was the temple of Hadrian, mentioned in the Mtrabilia CUldrichs, Codex Topogr., Wiirtzburg, 1871, p. 107) as being ne.ar this spot.
The temple of Venus Felix and Roma Aterna on the Velia (see fig. 23) was the largest in Rome ; it was pseudo-dipteral with ten Corinthian columns of Greek marble at the ends, and probably twenty at the sides ; it had an outer colonnade round the peribolus of about 180 columns of polished granite and porphyry. Of these only a few fragments now exist ; for several centuries the whole area of this building was used as a quarry, while the residue of the marble was burnt into lime on the spot in kilns built of broken fragments of the porphyry columns. A considerable part of the two eellee with their apses, set back to back, still exists; in each apse was a colossal seated figure of the deity, and along the side walls of the cellT were rows of porphyry columns and statues in niches. The vault is deeply coffered with stucco enrichments once painted and gilt. The roof was covered with tiles of gilt bronze, which were taken by Pope Honorius I. (625-638) to cover the basilica of St Peter's. These were stolen by- the Saracens during their sack of the Leonine city in 846. The emperor Hadrian him-self designed this magnificent temple, which was partially completed was probably finished by Antoninus Pius ; it was partly burned in the reign of Maxentius, who began its restoration, which was carried on by Constantine (Amm. Marcell., xvi. 10). The existing remains of the two cellm are mainly of Hadrian's time, but contain patches of the later restorations. Between the south angle of this temple and the arch of Constantine stand the remains of a fountain, usually known as the Meta Sudans. This was a tall conical struc-ture in a large circular basin, all lined with marble. From its brick facing it appean to be a work of the Flavian period.
That part of the Ccelian Hill which is near the Colosseum is covered tvith very extensive remains, - a great peribolus of brick-faced concrete, apparently of Flavian date, and part of a massive travertine arcade, somewhat similar to that of the Colosseum ; most of the latter has been removed for the sake of the stone, but a portion still exists under the monastery and campanile of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. What this extensive building was remains doubtful till further excavations are made. According to one theory it is the temple of Claudius, built by Vespasian (Suet, Vesp., 9) ; but Bunsen's suggestion is much more probable (Beseh., p. 476), that it was the house of Vectilius, bought and probably enlarged by Commodus (Hist. Aug.: Comm., 16), and connected with the Colosseum by a subterranean passage. Such a passage actually exists, and has been partly cleared out The so-called temple of Minerva Medica on the eastern slope of the Esquiline (so named from a statue found in it) is probably part of some baths. It is a curiously planned building, with central decagonal domed hall, probably of the time of Gallienus 263-268 (see Canine, Ind. Top., p. 161). Somewhat similar ruins beside the neighbouring basilica of S. Croce have been supposed to belong to a nymphreum of Severus Alexander, mentioned in the Notitia, Regio v., but are more probably part of the Sessorium, a court of justice on the Esquiline. The remains on the Quirinal in the Colonna gardens of massive marble entablatures richly sculptured were formerly thought to belong to Aurelian's great temple of the Sun, but it now appears certain that they belong to the very extensive thermaa of Constantine, part of the site of which is now occupied by the Quirinal palace and neighbouring buildings.2 The excavations of recent years have brought to light, and in many eases destroyed, a large number of domestic buildings ; many of these are recorded in the Notizie degli Scavi and the Bull. Comm. Arch. Rom., 1872-1876. The extensive cutting away of the Tiber bank for the new embankment exposed some very ornate houses near the Villa Farnesina, richly decorated with marble, fine wall-paintings, and stucco reliefs, equal in beauty to any works of the kind that have ever been found. Some of these were cut off the wall, anti will be exhibited in a new nuiseuni about to be formed to contain all ancient works of art found in Rome ; but the houses themselves have been destroyed. The laying out of the new Quirinal and Esquiline quarters also has exposed many fine buildings. One hfunlsome villa, built over the Servian wall, may possibly be the house of Miecenas. A very remarkable vaulted room, decorated with paintings of plants and landscapes, has been shown to be a greenhouse ;3 at one end is an apse with a series of step-like stages for flowers. This one rooin has been preserved, though the rest of the villa has been destroyed ; it is on the road leading from S. Maria Maggiore to the Lateran. The walls are a very fine specimen of tufa opus reticalatum, unmixed with brick, evidently earlier than the Cluistian era. Among the numerous buildings discovered in the Horti Sallustiani near the Quirinal is a very fine house of the 1st century A.n., in concrete faced with brick and opus reticulatum. It has a central circular domed hall, with many rooms and staircases round it, rising several stories high. This house was set in the valley against a cliff of the Quirinal, so that the third floor is level with the upper part of the hill. It is nearly on the line of the Servian wall, which stood here at a higher level on the edge of the cliff. This is identified as the house of Sallust, which at his death became crown property, and was used as a residence by- Nero (Tat., Ann., xiii. 47) and other emperors till the 4th century.4 In 1884, near the Porta S. Lorenzo, a long line of houses was discovered during the making of a new road. Some of these were of' opus reticulatum of the 1st century B.C.; others had the finest kind of brick-facing, probably of the time of Nero ; all had been richly decorated with marble linings and mosaics. The line of the street was parallel to that of the later Aurelian wall, which at this part was built against the back of this row of houses. At the same time, behind the line of houses, were uncovered fine peperino and tufa piers of the aqueduct rebuilt by Augustus, one arch of which forms the Porta S. Lorenzo. These interesting remains have all been completely destroyed. A fine house of the end of the 1st century A.D., With richly decorated walls, was exposed in June 1884 against the slope of the Quirinal, near the Palazzo Colonna ; it was immediately destroyed to make room for new buildings.
The prxtorian camp was first made permanent and surounded with a strong wall by the emperor Tiberius (Suet., Vb., 37). Owing to the camp being included in the line of the Aurelian wall a great part of it still exists ; it is a very interesting specimen of early imperial brick-facing. The wall is only 12 to 14 feet high, and has thinly scattered battlements, at intervals of 20 feet. The north gate (Porta Principalis Drxtra) is well preserved; it had a tower on each side, now greatly reduced in height, in which are small windows with arched heads moulded in one slab of terra-cotta. The brick-facing is very neat and regular, - the bricks being about inches thick, with i-inch joints. On the inside of the wall are rows of small rooms for the guards. Part of the Porta. Decumana also remains. This camp was dismantled by Constan-tine, who removed its inner walls ; the outer ones were left because they formed part of the Aurelian circuit. The present wall is nearly three times the height of the original camp wall, The upper part was added when Aurelian included it in his general circuit wall round Rome. The superior neatness and beauty of Tiberius's brick-facing make it easy to distinguish where his work ends and that of the later emperors beg,ins. Owing to the addition of the later wall it requires some care to trace the rows of battle-ments which belong to the camp.
The Pantheon is the most perfect among existing classical build-ings in Rome (see fig. 24). It was built by Agrippa in 27 B.c., as is recorded on the frieze of the portico. What its original pur-pose was is not clear ; on the one hand, it forms part of the great therms built by Agrippa, and in position and design closely resembles the great circular calidaiium in the thermic of Caraealla ; on the other hand, it has no hypocaust or hot-air flues, and was certainly consecrated as a temple, to Mars, Venus, and other sup-posed ancestors of Coesar's family very soon after it was built (Dion Cass., liii. 27) ; it was used as the meeting-place of the Fratres Arvales before they began to meet in the temple of Concord (see Henzen, Acta Prat. Arval., 1868, No. 71).5 It had the name Panthcum apparently from the first ; Pliny (EN., xxxvi. 4) mentions the sculpture by the Athenian Diogenes which adonied it, and its capitals and dome covering of Syracusan bronze (xxxiv. 7); the ceiling of the portico too was of bronze, supported by massive tubular girders,' which. remained till Urban VIII. melted them to make cannon for S. Angelo and the baldacchino of St Peter's ; the bronze weighed 450,000 lb. The bronze tiles of the dome were stolen long before by Constans II., in 663, but on their way to Constantinople they svere seized by the Saracens. The portico has eight columns on the front and three on the sides, all granite monoliths except the re-stored ones on the east side, - sixteen in all. The capitals are Corinthian, of white marble ; the tym-panum (cier6s) of the pedi-ment was filled with bronze reliefs of the battle of the gods and the giants.2 The walls of the' circular part, nearly 20 feet thick, arc of solid tufa concrete, thinly faced with brick. The enormous dome, 142 feet 6 inches in span, is cast in concrete made of pumice-stone, pozzolana, and lime; being one solid mass, it covers the building like a shell, free from any lateral thrust at the haunches. Round the central opening or hypxthrum still re-mains a ring of enriched mouldings in gilt bronze, the only bit left of the bronze which once covered the whole dome. The lower story of the circular part and the walls of the pro-jecting portico were covered with slabs of Greek marble; a great part of the latter still remains, enriched with Corinthian pilasters and bands of sculptured ornament. The two upper stories of the drum were covered outside with hard stucco of pounded marble. Inside the whole was lined with a great variety of rich Oriental marbles. This mag,nificent interior, divided into two orders by an entablature supported on columns and pilasters, has been much injured by alteration ; but the materials are ancient, and the general effect is probably much the same as it was, not in the time of Agrippa, but after the restorations of Hadrian (Spart., Hadr., 181) and Severus, when the mag,nificently coloured por-phyries and Oriental marbles were so largely uscd.3 About 608 the Pantheon was given by Phocas to Boniface IV., who con-secrated it as the church of S. Maria ad Martyres. In 1881-82 the destruction of a row of houses behind the Pantheon exposed remains of a grand hall with richly sculptured entablature on Corinthian columns, part of the great thermw of Agrippa, which extend beyond the Via della Ciambella (fig. 24). A great part of the thermn appears from the brick stamps to belong to an exten-sive restoration in the reign of Hadrian, and bricks of his time are even said to have been found in the facing of the Pantheon itself.4 (See BATHS, VOL p. 434 sq.) Close by the Pantheon is the church of S. Maria sopra Minerva, which stands (as its name records) on the site of a temple to Minerva Chalcidica, probably founded by the great Pompey e. 60 B.c.2 Adjoining this were temples to Isis and Serapis, a cult which became very popular in Rome in the time of Hadrian ; larg,e quantities of sculpture, Egypto-Roman in style, have been found on this site at many different times.6 Several of the barracks (esecubitoria) of the various cohorts of the vigiles or firemen have been discovered in various parts of Rome.
The central depOt is buried under the Palazzo Savorelli ; that of the second cohort is on the Esquiline, near the so-called temple of Minerva Medica ; that of the third was found iu 1873 near the baths of Diocletian (see Bull. COMM Arch. ROM. , 1873). The most perfect is that of the 7th cohort near S. Ciisogono Tras-tevere, a handsome house of the 2d century, decorated with mosaic floors, wall-paititings, &-c.7 The excavations made in exposing the ancient church of S. Clemente brought to light interesting remains of many different periods ; drawing,s are given by Mullooly, St Clement's Basilica, 1869, and De Rossi, Bull. Arch. Crist., 1870, pt. iv.
Many remains exist of the Golden House 8 of Nero, which show that this gorgeous palace covered an almost incredibly large space of ground, extending from the Palatine, over the Velia and the site of the temple of Venus and Rome, to the Esquiline, filling the great valley between the Ccelian and the Esquiline where the Colos-seum stands, and reaching far over the Esquiline to the great re-servoir now called the "Sette Sale." No other extravagances or cruelties of Nero appear to have offended the Roman people so much as the erection of this enormous palace, which must have blocked up many important roads and occupied the site of a whole populous quarter. It was no doubt partly to make restitution for this enormous theft of land that Vespasian and Titus destroyed the Golden House and built the Colos.seum and public therrnre of Titus 9 bn part of its site. Under the substructions of the latter building extensive remains of the Golden House still exist ; and at one point, at a lower level still, pavements and foundations remain of one of the numerous houses destroyed by Nero to clear the site. The great bronze colossus of Nero, 120 feet high (Suet., Nero, 31), which stood in one of the porticus of the Golden House, was moved by Vespasian, with head and attributes altered to those of Apollo (Helios), on to the Velia ; and it was moved again by Hadrian when the temple of Rome was built, on to the base which still exats near the Colosseum. Several coins show this colossus by the side of the Colosseum.
Under the Palazzo Doria, the church of S. Maria in Via Lata, and other neighbotning buildings extensive remains exist of a great porticus, with long rows of travertine piers ; this buildin,g appears to be represented on fragments of the marble plan with the words SAEPT LIA. This is probably the Septa Julia, begun by Julius Csar, and completed by Ag,rippa in 27 B. C. , as the voting place for the Comitia Centuriata, divided into compartments, one for each century. The building contained rostra, and was also used for gladiatorial shows. Under the later empire it becarne a bazaar and resort of slave-dealers.
That curiously planned building on the Esquiline, in the new Piazza Vit. Emmanuele, where the so-called trophies of Marius once were placed (see drawing by Du Perac in his Vestigi), is one of the numerous castella or reservoirs from which the water of the various aqueducts was distributed in the quarters they were meant to supply. This was built by Severus Alexander at the termination of his Alexandrine -aqueduct, opened. in 225 (see Lamprid., Hist. Aug.: Sev. Alex., 25). The marble trophies are now set at the top of the Capitoline steps ; their quarry mark shows them to be of the time of Domitian : it consists of the following inscription, now not visible, as it is cut on the under part - IMP . DOM. AVG . GERM . PER . CHREZ . LIB . .1° The Circus Maximus (see vol. v. p. 791) occupied the Vallis Mureire'l between the Palatine and the Aventine. Its first rows of seats, which were of wood, were made under Tarquin I. (Liv., i. 56 ; Dionys., iii. 68). It was restored in 327 and 174 B. c. (Liv., viii. 20 ; xli. 27). In the reig,n of Julius Csar it was rebuilt with (for the first time) lower seats of stone (Plin., H.N., xxkvi. 24), the upper being still of wood (Suet., Des., 39) ; Dionysius (iii. 68) describes it as it was after this rebuilding. It was further ornamented with marble by Augustus, Claudius, and other emperors. The.wooden part was burnt in the great fire of Nero, and again under Domi-tian, by whom it was restored Ns-holly in stone and marble, and lastly it was restored and enlarged by Constantine. In its later stato it had a marble facade with three external tiers of arches with engaged columns, and (inside) sloping tiers of marble seats, supported on concrete taking vaults (Plin., Pang., 51). A great part of these vaults existed in the 16th century, and is shown by Du Perac. it held a quarter of a million spectators (Plin., xxxvi. 24). The end with the earceree was near the church of S. Elaria in Cosmedin.1 Sorne of its substructures, with remains of very early tufa structures on the Palatine side, still exist below the church of S. Anastasia (see 58 in fig. 17). The obelisk now in the Piazza del Popolo was set on the spina by Augustus. The Circus Flaininitts in the Campus Martius was built by the C. Flaminius Nepos killed at Thrasymeue in 217 B. C. ; remains of the structure were found in the 16th century under the Palazzo Mattei. In the Middle Ages its long open space was used as a rope-walk, hence the name of the church called S. Caterina dei Funari, which occupies part of its site.2 The circus of Calig,ula and Nero was at the foot of the Vatican Hill (Plin., xxxvi. 15). The modern sacristy of St Peter's stands over part of its site. The obelisk on its spina remained standing in situ till it was moved by Fontana 3 for Sixtns V. to its present site in the centre of the piazza. Another circus was built by Hadrian near his mausolemn ; remains of it were found in 1743, but nothing is now visible (Atti d. Pont. Acead., 1839). The great stadium, foundations of which exist under most of the houses of the Piazza Navona (Agonalis), and especially below S. Agnese, is probably that built by Domitian and restored by Severus Alexander. It was called from the latter emperor the Stadium Alexandrinum. That it was a stadium and not a circus is shown by the fact that its starting end is at right angles to the sides and not set diagonally, as was always the case with the carceres of a circus ; nor is there auy trace of foundations of a spina. The best preserved circus is that built by Maxentius in honour of his deified son Romulus, by the Via Appia, 2 miles outside the walls of Rome. It was attributed to Caracalla till 1825, when an inscription record-ing its true dedication was found.4 The first permanent nanmachia was that constructed by Augustus between the foot of the Janiculan Hill and the Tiber ; traces of it have recently been discovered near the church of S. Crisogono. The naurnachia Domitian was pulled down and the materials used to restore the Circus Maximus (Suet., Dom., 5) ; its site is not known.
• The fust stone5 theatre in Rome was that built by Pompey, 56. 52 B. C.; it contained a temple to Venus Victrix, and in front of it Wa..4 a great porticus called Hecatostylum from its hundred columns. This is shown on the marble plan.6 Considerable remains of the foundations exist between the Via de' Chiavari, which follows the line of the scena, and the Via de' Giubbonari and Via del Paradiso. Adjoining this WaS the curia of _Pompey, where Cfesar was murdered, after which it was burnt and the site decreed to be a "locus seeler-atus." The colossal statue, popularly supposed to be that of Pompey at the 'feet of which Cmsar died,7 now in the Palazzo Spada, was found in 1553 near the theatre. This theatre was restored by Augustus (Mon. Ancyr.) ; in the reign of Tiberius it was burnt and its rebuilding was completed by Caligula. The scena was again burnt in 80 A. D., and restored by Titus. According to Pliny (H.N., xxxvi. 24), it held 40,000 spectators. In 1864 the colossal gilt bronze statue of Hercules, now in the Vatican, a work of the 3d century, was found near the site of the theatre of Pompey, carefully concealed underground. The theatre of Marcellus is much more perfect ; complete foundations of the cunei exist under the Palazzo Savelli, and part of the external arcade is well preserved. This is built of travertine in two orders, Tuscan and Ionic, with delicate details, very superior to those of the Colosseum, the arcade of which is very similar to this in general design. This theatre was begun by J. Qesar, and finished by Augustus in 13 B.C., who dedicated it in the name of his nephew Marcellus.8 It was restored by liespasian (Suet., Vesp., 19). Livy (xl. 51) mentions an earlier theatre on the same spot, built by El. /Emilius Lepidus in 179 B.C.
It stands partly in the Forum Olitorium, a large extent of the tn.. vertine..paving of which was exposed in 1875 (Bull. Com. Arch. Mun., in. 1875). Foundations also of the theatre of 13albus exist under the Palazzo Cenci ; and in the Via di S. Maria in Caeaberis, No. 23, there is a small portion of the external arcade of the por-ticus which belonged to this theatre ; the lower story has travertine arches with engaged columns, and the upper has brick-faced pilasters. It was built by Cornelius Balbus in 13 B.C. (Suet., Aug., 29 ; Dion Cass., liv. 25). An interesting account of the temporary theatre of Scattrus, erected in 58 n.c., is given by Pliny (II.N., xxxvi. 2, 24). The same writer mentions an almost incredible building, which consisted of two wooden theatres made to revolve on pivots so that the two tonther made an amphitheatre ; this was erected by C. Curio in 50°D.e.
The first stone amphitheatre in Rome was that built by Statilius Taurus in the reign of Augustus. Its ruins are supposed to tonal the elevation called Monte Giordano, but none of it is visible. For the Colosseum see AMPHITH EATRE, VOI. i. The Amphitheatrunt Castrense is in the line of the wall of Aurelian near the Porta Asinaria ; it is built of concrete, faced with neat brickwork, and was decorated with friezes and other ornaments in moulded terra-cotta. Its exterior. had two tiers of arches between engaged Corinthian columns, all, even the foliage of the capitals, very neatly executed in terra-cotta. Only one piece with the upper order still exists on the outside of the Aurelian line. This amphi-theatre is mentioned in the regionary catalogues under Regio v. It is supposed to have been erected for the amusement of the troops in the neighbouring camp, hence its mine. From the character of the brick-facing the building appears to date from the early part of the 2d century.
- Arches, Colitmns, Tombs, and Bridges.
The earliest triumphal arches were the two erected by L. Stertinins (196 n.c.) in the Forum Boarium and in the Circus Maximus, out of spoils gained in Spain.° In the later years of the empire there were nearly forty in Rome. The arch of Titus and Yespasian on the Summa Sacra Via was erected. by Domitian to commemorate the conquest of Juthea by Titus in his father's reign. Reliefs inside the arch represent the triumphal procession - Titus in a chariot, and on the other side soldiers bearing the golden candlestick, trumpets, and table of prothesis, taken from the Jewish temple. The central part only of this monument is original ; the sides were restored in 1823.1° Another arch in honour of Titus had previously been built (80 A.D.) in the Circus Maximus ; its inscription is. given in the Einsiedeln MS. (Grater, Inser., p. 244, No. 6). A plain tra-vertine arch near the supposed palace of Commodus on the Ccelian is inscribed with the names of the consul Publius Corn. Dolabella (10 A.D.) and of the flamen ruartialis, C. Junius Silanus. In later times Nero's aqueduct was built over it. It may possibly have been an entrance into the Campus Martians, an enclosure on the Ccelian sacred to Mars, which was used for games when the Campus Martius was flooded. The so-called arch of Drusus by the Porta Appia als6 carries the specus of an aqueduct, - that built by Cara-calla to supply his great thermta. Its coarse details show, how-ever, that it is much later than the time of Drusus (Suet., eland., 1). It was usual to ornament specially the arch of an aqueduct that happened to cross a road, and this arch was probably- built by Caracalla with the rest of his branch of the Aqua Marcia. Ad-joining the church of S. Giorgio in Vclabro a rich though coarsely decorated marble gateway with flat lintel still exists, - built, as its inscription records, in honour of Severus and his sons by the argentarii (bankers and silversmiths) and other merchants of the Forum Boarium in 204. It formed an entrance front the Forum Boariurn into the Velabrum. The figure of Geta in the reliefs and his name have been erased by Caracalla ; the sculpture is poor both in design and executionli (see Bull. Inst., 1867, p. 217, and 1871, p. 233). Close by is a quadruple arch, set at the intersection of two roads, such as was called by the Romans an arch of Janus Quadrifons. Though partly built of earlier fragments, it is of the worst style of work ; it cannot be earlier than the time of Constan-tine, and probably is of still later date. The finest existina arch is that by the Colosseum erected by Constantine. It owes, fowever, little of its beauty to that artistically degraded period. Not only most of its reliefs but its whole design and many of its architectural features were stolen from an earlier arch erected by Trajan as an entrance to his forum (see p. 826 above). The arch of Claudius. built in 43 to commemorate his supposed victories in Britain, stood across the Yia Lata (modern Corso) between S. Fiat:mese° Saverio and the Palazzo Sciarra. Its exact position is shown in Bull.
Comm. Arch. Rom., vi., pl. iv. Its remains were removed in the middle of the 16th century,' and nothing now is left but half its inscription, preserved in the garden of the Barberini palace, and two of its reliefs in the porch of the Villa Borghese. It is shown on botl: aurei and denarii of Claudius, with an attic inscribed DE BRITANNIS, and surmounted by a quadriga and trophies. The arch of Marcus Aurelius, also destroyed in the 16th century, spanned the modern Corso farther north, where the Via Lata had become the Via Flaminia.2 Many of its fine reliefs are preserved in the Capitoline Museum. The central part of the once triple arch of GaIlienus still exists on the Esquiline ; it stands against the ancient Porta Esquilina of the Servian wall. It is built of traver-tine, is simple in design, with coarse details, and has a long in-scription on its attic. The two side arches and pediment over the centre existed in the 16th century, and are shown in the Mantuan oil-painting of Rome,3 and in several antiquarian works of the 16th century. The inscription records that it was erected in 262 in honour of Gallieuns and his wife Saloniva by M. Aurelius Victor, pmfect of the city.4 The column of Antoninus Pius was a monolith of red granite, erected. after his death by his adopted sons M. Aurelius and L. Vents. One fi•agment of it is preserved in the Vatican with an interesting quarry inscription, recording that it was cut in the ninth year of Trajan's reign, under the supervision of Dioscurus and the architect Aristides. The rest of its fragments were used by Pius VI. to repair the obelisk of Monte Citorio, set up by Aug,ustus in the Campus Martins as the gnomon of a sun-dial (Pliu., IL 1V., xxxvi. 15). The marble pedestal of the Antonine column is now in the Vatican ; it has reliefs of the apotheosis of Faustina and Antoninus Pius, and processions of soldiers. This and the column of M. Aurelius were both surmounted by colossal portrait statues of gilt bronze. The column of M. Aurelius is very similar in size and design to that of Trajan. Its spiral reliefs represent victories in Germany from 167 to 179, arranged in twenty tiers. Like the colu:nn of Tmjan, it is exactly 100 Roman feet high, without the pedestal. The pedestal was originally much higher than at present, but is now partly buried ; it is shown by Garnucci, Du Perac, and other 16th-century writers. This column stood in front of a tuni:le to M. Aurelius, and within a great peribolus, forming a forum similar to that of Trojan, though much smaller ; the remains of this temple probably form the elevation now called Monte Citorio.° For the catacombs see that article (vol. v. p. 206) ; for obelisks 6 see ARCHITECTURE (VOL p. 390) and EGYPT (vol. vii. pp. 768, 778).
The recent discovery of a cemetery of prehistoric (Etruscan) date is mentioned above, p. 812. Few tombs exist of the Roman period earlier than the lst century B.C., - probably ovring to the great extension of the city beyond the Servian limits, which thus obliter-ated the earlier burial places. The tomb of the Coruelian Scipios is the most important of early date which still exists. It is exca-vated in the tufa rock at the side of the Via Appia, outside the Porta Capena. Interments of the Scipio family went on here for al:out 400 years, additional chambers and passages being excavated from time to time. The peperino sarcophagus of Cornelius Lucius Scipio Barbatus (Liv., x. 12, 13), consul iu 298 B.C., iS now in the Vatican ; its inscription, in rude Saturnian verse, is perhaps the most important existing specimen of early Latin epigraphy. Many other inscribed slabs wem found in the 17th century, covering the "loculi" in which lay the bodies of later menabers of the family. Those now existing in the tomb are modern copies, with blundered inscriptions. All are given by Mommsen (C . L L., i. p. 11 sq.). This burial-place of the Scipios is unlike those of other families, owing to the gens Cornelia keeping up the early custom of interment without burning ; thus stone sarcophagi or loculi (rock-cut recesses) were required instead of mere pigeon-holes to hold the cinerary urns. The tomb of Bibulus, a few yards outside the Porta Ratumena, and remains .of two recently' discovered during the destruction of' the Aurelian towers at the Porta Mara, date from about the middle of the 1st century D.C., as does also the curious tomb of the baker Eurysaces outside the Porta Maggiom. In 1863 an interesting tomb of the Sernpronia gens was discovered on the Quirinal, below the royal palace, near the site of the Porta Sanqualis. It is of travertine, with a rich entablature and frieze sculptured with the Greek honeysuckle ornament (see Bull. Comm. Arch. Ram., iv.). This also is of the last years of the republic.7 The mausoleum of Augustus, built 28 B.C., stands in the north part of the Campus 31artinis, between the Tiber and the Via Flarninia. It is a massive cylimhical structure of concrete, faced with opus reticulatum ; over that it was lined vvith marble slabs ; inside were a series of radiating chambers, in plan like a wheel. On the top was a great mound of earth, planted with trees and flowers (Tac., Ann., iii. 9). As late as the 16th century its external form remained unaltered.° Only the bare core exists now, with its fine opus reticulatum, best seen in the court of the Palazzo Valdam-brini. The inside is concealed by modern seats, being used now as a circus (Teatro Correa). The sepulchral inscription in honour of Augustus, engraved on two bronze columns at the entrance, is pre-served to us by.- its copy at Ancyra. It records an almost incredible amount of building : in addition to the long list of buildings men-tioned by name Augustus says, DVO . ET . OCTAGINTA . TEXPLA DEVM . IN. VRBE . CONSVL . SEXTVM . . . REFECI.9 The first burial in the mausoleum of Augustus was that of Marcellus, 22 B.C., and it continued to be the imperial tomb till the death of Nerva, 98 A.D., after whose interment there was no more room. It was sacked by Alaric in 409, and in the 12th century was made into a fortress by the Colonna family, and suffered much from constant party struggles.
The mausoleum of Hadrian, begun in 135 as a substitute for that built by Augustus, yvas a large circular building on a square podium ; its walls, of enormous thickness, are of concrete faced with blocks of peperino, the whole being lined with Parian marble and surrounded by a colonnade with rows of statues, - a work of the greatest mag,nificence. The bronze pine-cone, now in the Vatican, ys-as (according to Vacca) found near the mausolemn, and probably surmounted its conical dome. The splendour of the whole is de-scribed by Procopius (B. G., i. 22), who mentions its siege by the Goths, when the defenders hurled the statues on to the heads of the enemy. In the 6th century it was made into a papal castle called S. Angelus inter Nubes, and all through the Middle Ages it suffered much from constant attacks. The interior chambers are still well preserved, but its outside bas been so often wrecked and refaced that little of the original masonry is visible.
Several of the grander sepulchral monuments of Rome were built ; in the form of pyramids. One of these still exists, included in the ; Aurelian wall, by the Porta Ostiensis. It is a pyraniid of concrete, 118 feet high, faced with blocks of white marble, and contains a : small chamber decorated with painted stucco. An inscription in large letters on the marble facing records that it was built as a tomb for C. Cestius, a prretor, tribune of the people, and septemvir of the epulones (officials who supervised banquets in honour of the gods)--an office founded in 196 B.C. (Liv., xxxiii. 42). It was erected, according to Cestius's will, by his executors, in the space of 330 days. It dates from the time of Augustusl° (see Falconieri, in Nardini, Roma Antica, iv. p. 1, ed. 1818-20). Another shuilar pyramid, popularly known as the tomb of Romulus, stood between the mausoleum of Hadrian and the basilica of St Peter. It was destroyed in,the 15th century during the rebuilding of the long bridge which connects the former building with the Vatican.
The earliest bridge vras a 1P00(1C11 drawbridge called the Pons Sublicius from the piles (sublicm) on which it was built. The river being an important part of the defence of Rome from the Aventine to the Porta Fluminalis (see plan of Servian wall, fig. 8), no permanent Midges were made till the Romans were strong enough not to fear attacks from without. The Pons Sublicius appea-rs to have been of wood even in the imperial period.' Its exact site is doubtful, but some existing foundations near the foot of the Aven-tine, near the Marmoratum, may have been the supports of its wooden piers. The first stone bridge was completed in 142 p.c., when the conquest of Etruria and the defeat of Hannibal had put an end to fears of invasion ; it was called the Pons Erailius, after the pontifex MaXiMUS 2 Lepidus, its founder. It was also called Pons Lapideus to distinguish it from the wooden Sublician bridge. The modern Ponte Rotto is on the site of this ; but the existing three arches are medifeval. An ancient basalt-paved road still exists, leading to the Midge from the Fonun Boarium. The Pons Fabricius unites the city and the island (Insula Tiber-ina) ; Livy (ii. 5) gives the fable of the formation of this island from the Tarquin corn, cut from the Campus Martius and thrown into the river. The bridge derived its name from L. Fabricius, a curator viarum in 62 B. C. ; its inscription, twice repeated, is L.