city bank feet french founded town canada
QUEBEC, the ancient capital of Canada, and present capital of the province of Quebec, is situated on the northwest bank of the river St Lawrence at its junction with the St Charles, about 300 miles from the Gulf of St Lawrence and 180 miles below Montreal, in 46° 49' 6" N. lat. and 71° 13' 45" W.
long. It is the most picturesque and most strongly fortified city on the continent. Quebec is built on the northern extremity of an elevated table-land which forms the left bank of the St Lawrence for a distance of 8 miles. The highest part of the headland is Cape Diamond, 333 feet above the level of the water, and crowned by the citadel, which covers an area of forty acres, and presents a hold
and precipitous front on the south-east side, while towards the north and west the declivity is more sloping and gradual. The harbour of Quebec is spacious and capable of accommodating ships of the largest tonnage, and its docks and tidal basin, when completed, will rank among the most perfect works of the kind in the world. They are constructed of limestone and iron, and,
including the graving dock on the Levis side of the river, will cost very nearly three millions of dollars. The harbour is protected towards the northeast by the island of Orleans, on either side of which there is an approach. The spring tides rise and fall about 18 feet. Quebec is divided into upper and lower town, - access to the former being obtained by a steep and winding street, several
flights of narrow steps, and an elevator. In the lower town are situated the principal banks, merchants' offices, and wholesale and retail stores. The streets, with one or two exceptions, are narrow and irregular. In the upper town, where the streets are wider and well-paved, are the better class of dwelling houses, the public buildings, most of the churches, the public walks and gardens, retail
stores and small shops. To the west are the suburbs of St John, St Louis, and St Roche. The latter occupies the lower plain, and is rapidly becoming a place of commercial importance. The other two suburbs are on the same level with the upper town. South-west of St John stretch the historic Plains of Abraham. On this battle-ground 6. column 40 feet high has been erected to mark the spot where
General Wolfe in 1759 died victorious. In the governor's garden, which overlooks the St Lawrence, is a stately monument 65 feet in height, which is dedicated to the memory of Wolfe and Montcalm. An iron pillar surmounted by a bronze statue, the gift of Prince Napoleon Bonaparte, stands on St Foye road, and commemorates the achievements of the British and French troops in 1760. Four martello
towers occupy commanding positions. A point of interest in the upper town is Dufferin Terrace, a magnificent promenade 1400 feet long and 200 feet above the level of the river. Part of this terrace occupies the site of the old Chateau St Louis, which was destroyed by fire in 1834. The view from the platform is very striking and beautiful. The Grand Battery also affords a fine prospect. Quebec was
once the walled city of the north, but several of its ancient fortifications have been dismantled, and the old gates taken down. There are three gates now, instead of five as in former years, viz., St Louis, Kent, and St John's, each of which is very handsome and massive. Among the principal edifices are the parliamentary and departmental buildings, - a stately pile situated on Grande Al16e, -
the new court house now building, the post office, custom-house, city hall, masonic hall, the Basilica, or Roman Catholic cathedral (an irregular cut-stone building 216 feet long by 180 feet wide, and containing many fine oil paintings), the archiepiscopal palace, the Anglican cathedral (a plain structure in the Roman style), the skating rink, and the hall of the Young Men's Christian Association
; four large markets supply the people with meat and country produce. There are eight Roman Catholic churches, five Church of England, two Presbyterian, one Methodist, one Baptist, one Lutheran, one Congregational, one Scandinavian, one French Protestant, and a Jewish synagogue, which is situated in the Masonic Hall. Laval University, which derives its name from the first bishop of Quebec, who
founded in 1663 the seminary for the training of priests, is the principal educational establishment of the Roman Catholics. It was instituted in 1852 by a royal charter from Queen Victoria and a charter from Pope Pius IX. The building is large and spacious, and the university, which is held in high esteem, is well equipped with apparatus, a library of over 85,000 volumes, a museum, geological
specimens, and a picture gallery. Laval has a strong staff of professors, lay and clerical, 'and the faculties are theology, law, medicine, and arts. In connexion with this institution are the grand seminary founded in 1663, where theology is taught, and the minor seminary for literature and philosophy. Laval Normal and Model School, the Ursuline Convent, - a very large establishment for the
education of young ladies, founded in 1641, - the Convent of the Good Shepherd, and several nunneries complete the list of Boman Catholic educational institutions. Morrin College (Presbyterian) was founded by Dr Morrin, and is affiliated with McGill University. Other Protestant schools are the boys' high school, the girls' high school, a number of academies, and public and private schools, all in
a state of efficiency. In 1881 the number of children attending the various schools in Quebec was 9889, of whom half were girls. There is no free public library in the city, but the Literary and Historical Society, - the oldest chartered institution of the kind in Canada, founded by Lord Dalhousie in 1824, - the Canadian Institute, the Geographical Society, the Young Men's Christian Association,
the Advocates' Library, and the Parliamentary Library have valuable collections of books. The principal benevolent institutions are the marine hospital, the Hotel Dieu, founded in 1639 by the duchess of Aiguillon, the general hospital (1693), the Finlay Asylum, the Jeffrey Hale Hospital, the Church of England Female Orphans' Asylum, the Ladies' Protestant Home, St Bridget's Asylum, Grey Nunnery,
and the lunatic asylum at Beauport. Nine daily newspapers are published at Quebec, six of which are in the French language. A good supply of water is afforded from Lake St Charles, but the city has suffered so severely from devastating fires in the past that in 1883 the common council ordered an additional pipe to be laid at a cost of half a million of dollars. Quebec is well lighted with gas and
the electric light. Connexion is had with all parts of Canada and the United States by several railway lines, and the city is at the head of ocean steamship navigation to Europe. There are two lines of street cars. The head offices of three banks are situated in Quebec, viz., the Quebec Bank, the Union Bank of Lower Canada, and La Banque Nationale. Besides these there are two savings banks, the
Post Office Savings Bank, and the agencies of the Bank of Montreal, the Bank of British North America, and the Merchants' Bank. The population of the city in 1871 was 59,699 ; in 1881, 62,446 (28,923 males and 33,523 females),-6200 being Protestants.
Shipbuilding was formerly one of the chief industries of Quebec, but of late years very few wooden ships have been built. In 1883 the number was twenty-five, representing a total tonnage of 4596 tons. Manufacturing is carried on to some extent, the principal manufactures being iron castings, machinery, cutlery, nails, leather,
musical instruments, boots and shoes, paper, india-rubber goods, ropes, tobacco, steel, &c.
Quebec's staple export is timber, the greater portion of the shipments reaching town from the Ottawa and St Maurice districts. The rafts floating down the river are collected in the coves, and fastened by booms are moored along the banks. These coves extend along the river for upwards of 6 miles above the city. On the right
bank of the stream, not far from Quebec, are extensive sawmills. The port is one of the leading emporiums of the export trade between Canada and Great Britain. The number, tonnage, and crews of the vessels entered and cleared at Quebec for several years is as follows Large quantities of timber - especially white pine (10,427,000 feet in 1883), oak,
and red pine - are exported from Quebec. The total value of exports in 1883 was $9,268,983; of imports $4,976,713, and of import duty received $823,213.63. The value of the real estate is set down at $24,000,000.
The city returns three members to the Canadian House of Commons, and three to the provincial House of Assembly. It is governed by a mayor, eight alderfrien, and sixteen councillors, who hold their offices for two years. Quebec is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop, and the see of the bishop of the Church of England.
Quebec was first visited by the French navigator Jacques Cartier in 1535, when it consisted of a sparsely-settled Indian village called Stadacona. In July 1608 the.city was founded by Champlain, who bestowed on it its present name. Its growth was slow, and the numerous wars with the Indians and the English rendered the work of
colonization and settlement precarious and difficult. In 1629 the English captured it, but three years later it was restored to the French. In 1663 the colony was created a royal government, and Quebec became the capital. In 1690 Sir William nips with a numerous fleet attempted to reconquer it, but the French governor, Count de Frontenac, destroyed many of his vessels and forced the English to
fly. The French held possession until 1759, when it fell into the hands of the British under Wolfe, and it was finally ceded to Britain by the treaty of Paris in 1763. In 1775 General Montgomery with an American force attacked the city, but he perished before its walls and his troops were dispersed. Since then its capture has not been again attempted. (G. ST.)
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