talmud rashi rabbenu
RIPH Ou"1 Or TN'1), i.e., RABBENII YISHAK B. YA.`AlOB ITAKKOHEN AL-PHASI or AL-rEzr, after the death of his teachers the greatest rabbi of Africa, and subsequently of the Peninsula, in the llth and 12th centuries, was born in 1013 at Karat-Ibn-Hammad near Fez, and died at Lucena in 1103. His teachers were the great rabbins Rabbenu Nissim and Rabbenu Hananeel, both of 1a.irawan (ob. 1055). What RASHI (q.v.) was to the Ashkenazi° Riph was for the Sepharadic Jews,2 not only a teacher of the deepest learning, but also one who made new paths altogether for the students of the Talmud. Otherwise these two great men differed widely from one another in their activity. Rashi left the Babylonian Talmud, correc-tions of the text excepted (which he, however, confined to his own commentary, and by which his own disciples and publishers corrected the Talmud text), in its old state. Al-phasi, however, first separated from it the Agadah, which be cast aside almost entirely, and then he sifted the Hala-khali3 thoroughly, retaining only the practical part of it. Thus either title his book has received is correct, the Little Talmud or the Decisions of Rab Al-phez. Late in the 12th century and in the 13th a host of rabbins respectively attacked and defended Al-phasi (see RABA]) III., and RAMBA/c), whilst others commented on him (see below). One of the commentaries accompanying the Riph is by Rashi. This commentary, however, which is now an integral part of the book, was not written for it by Rashi himself, who could scarcely have known of Riph's exist-ence, and much less of his work. The fact is the enter-prising publisher of the second edition (Venice, 1521-22, fol.), the famous Daniel Bombergi, had one of the three recensions which Rashi had made on the Talmud excerpted and applied to corresponding parts of the Riph which has the very wording of the Talmud, or something near it. Where no Bashi was to be found. in the passages of the Talmud (see RASHI) RASHBAM (q.v.) was utilized. Riph was not only a great Talmudist, but also a man of the greatest magnanimity and highest morality, as may be seen from the following two facts. When R. Yishak Ibn Albalia who had been his bitterest enemy, lay at the point Of death, he recommended his son to Riph, who received him with the greatest kindness, and at once adopted him as son.1 Again, when Riph himself was at the point of death he recommended to the congregation of Lucena for successor, not his own learned and virtuous son Ya`4ob, but the yet more learned, though not more virtuous, R. Yoseph ibn Migash,2 who became the teacher of the teachers of MAIMONIDES (q.v.).
Although Riph's works which are known are only two, the editions of one of these and the commentaries thereon are very numerous •, we can only mention a few of them.
Hilekh,oth Bab Al-phez. (1) With the Novell.% of Rabbenu Nissim b. Reuben, the Decisions of R. Mordekhai b. Hillel (see Rosu), the Novell.% of one of the disciples of Rabbenu Yonah, the com-mentaries of R. Yehonathan Hakkohen of Lunel and R. Yoseph Habibo (Constantinople, 1509, fol.). (2) The second edition we have already mentioned. (3) With the Strictures by R. Zerahyali Hallevi (author of the Moor) and Nachmanides's defence called Milhamoth Adonai (see RAMBAN), Sic. (Venice, 1552, fol.). Each subsequent edition contains additional matter.
Responsa, oripinally sonic, if not all of them, written in Arabic (Leghorn, 17'81, and reprint, Vienna 1794, both in 4to).
For more literature by andon Rlph see Temim in the collection TU771math Yesharim. (S.M. s.-s.)