RICHMOND, a borough in the North Riding of Yorkshire, is finely situated on the Swale, at the terminus of the Richmond branch of the North-Eastern Railway, 44 miles north-west of York and 15 south-west of Darlington. The interest of the town centres in the castle, said to have been founded by Alan Rufus, son of Hoel, count of Bretagne, who is also said to have rebuilt the town on his obtaining the estates of the Saxon Earl Edwin, embracing two hundred manors of Richmond and extending over nearly a third of. the North Riding. When Henry VII. came to the throne these possessions reverted to the crown. Henry VIII. gave it to his son Henry by a daughter of Sir John Blount, and Charles II. bestowed the title of duke of Richmond on his son by the duchess of Portsmouth. The castle is situated on a perpendicular rock rising about 100 feet above the Swale, and from its great strength was con-sidered inaccessible. Originallyit covered an area of 5 acres, but the only portions of it now remaining are the Norman keep, with pinnacled tower and walls 100 feet high by 11 feet thick, and some other smaller towers. A portion of it is now occupied by the North York Rifles militia. The old church of St Mary, chiefly in tho Gothic style, though with some traces of Norman, has been restored under the direction of Sir Gilbert Scott. For the free grammar school founded by Elizabeth a Gothic building was erected in 1850, in memory of the Rev. James Tate, a former master. The tower of the Franciscan abbey founded in 1258 still remains. The chief modern buildings are the town-hall, the masonic hall, and the workmen's hall. The principal trade is in ag,ricultural produce, but there are a paper mill and an iron and brass foundry. The town received its first charter from Elizabeth. Under the Municipal Corporations Act it is governed by a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve councillors. Up to 1885,_ when it ceased to be separately represented, Richmond was a parliamentary borough, returning two members till 1868, and one after that date. The population of the municipal borough (area, 2520 acres) in 1871 was 4443, and in 1881 it was 4502.