MICHAEL VII. (Ducas or Parapinaces) was the eldest son of Constantine XI. Ducas, by whom along with his brothers Andronicus I. and Constantine XII. he was invested with the title of Augustus ; this joint succession took place in 1067, but in 1071 it suited the policy of the uncle Joannes Ciesar to make Michael sole emperor. For this position Michael, whose "character was degraded, rather than ennobled, by the virtues of a monk and the learning of a sophist," was by no means fitted, and at length two generals of the name of Nieephorus, surnamed Bryennius and Botaniates, simultaneously rebelled against him in 1078 ; with hardly a struggle he resigned the purple and retired into a monastery, where he afterwards received the title of archbishop of Ephesus.