Men Gs, Antony Raphael
MEN GS, ANTONY RAPHAEL (1728-1779), was the most celebrated representative of the eclectic school of painting in the 18th century, and played a great part in the early days of the classic revival. He was born in 1728 at Aussig in Bohemia, but his father, a Danish painter, established himself finally at Dresden, whence in 1741 he conducted his son to Rome. Mengs early showed that active intelligence and large capacity for laborious study which secured him the extraordinary distinction which he enjoyed through life. His appointment in 1749 as first painter to the elector of Saxony did not prevent his spending much time in Rome, where he had married in 1748, and abjured the Protestant faith, and where he became in 1754 director of the Vatican school of painting, nor did this hinder him on two occasions from obeying the call of Charles III. of Spain to Madrid. There Mengs produced some of his best work, and specially the ceiling of the banqueting hall, the subject of which was the Triumph of Trajan and the Temple of Glory. After the completion of this work in 1777, Mengs again returned to Rome, and there he died, two years later, in poor circumstances, leaving twenty children, seven of whom were pensioned by the king of Spain. Besides numerous paintings in the Madrid gallery, the Ascension at Dresden, Perseus and Andromeda at St Petersburg, and the ceiling of the Villa Albani must be mentioned among his chief works. In England, the duke of Northumberland possesses a Holy Family, and the colleges of All Souls and Magdalen, at Oxford, have altar-pieces by his hand. In his writings, in Spanish, Italian, and German, Mengs has put forth his eclectic theory of art, which treats of perfection as attainable by a well-schemed combination of diverse excellences, - Greek design, with the expression of Raphael, the chiaroscuro of Correggio, and the colour of Titian. His close intimacy with Winkelmann - who constantly wrote at his dictation - has greatly enhanced his historical importance, for he formed no scholars, and the critic must now concur in Goethe's judgment of Mengs in Winkelmann and seine Jahrhantle•c ; he must deplore that so much learning should have been allied to a total want of initiative and utter poverty of invention, and embodied with a strained and artificial mannerism.
See Opere di Antonio Rafaello Heim, Parma, 1780 ; Werke, iibersetzt v. G. F. Prange, 1786 ; Zeitsehrift fur bildende Kunst, 1880; Bianconi, Elogio Storieo di Mengs, Milan. 1780; Nagler's Kiinstlerlexikon..