danube arian constantinople gothic town century christianity probably party
ULFILAS (311-381), the apostle of Christianity to the Gothic race, and, through his translation of the Scriptures into Gothic, the father of Teutonic literature, was born among the Goths of the trans-Danubian provinces in the year 311.1 There is a tradition that his ancestors were Christian captives from Sadagolthina in Cappadocia, who had been carried off to the lands beyond the Danube in the Gothic raid of 267 ; but the evidence on which this rests is inadequate. An authoritative record of the outlines of his life has only been discovered within the last fifty years, in a writing of Auxentius, his pupil and companion.
At an early age Ulfilas was sent, either as an envoy or as a hostage for his tribe, to Constantinople, probably on the occasion of the treaty arranged in 332. During the preceding century Christianity had been planted sporadically among the Goths beyond the Danube, through the agency in part of Christian captives, many of whom belonged to the order of clergy, and in part of merchants and traders. Ulfilas may therefore have been a convert to Christianity when be reached Constantinople. Bnt it was here probably that he came into contact with the Arian doctrines which gave the form to his later teaching, and here that he acquired that command over the Greek and Latin tongues which equipped him for his labours as a translator. For some time before 341 he worked as a " lector " or reader of the Scriptures, probably among his own countrymen in Constantinople, or among those attached as fcederati to the imperial armies in Asia Minor. From this work he was called to return as missionary bishop to his own country, being ordained by Eusebius of Nicomedia and "the bishops who were with him " in 341. This ordination of Ulfilas as missionary bishop by the chiefs of the semi-Arian party is at once an indication of their determination to extend their influence by active missionary enterprise and evidence that Ulfilas was now-, if he had not been before, a declared adherent of the Arian or semi-Arian party. He was now thirty years of age, and his work as " bishop among the Goths " covered the remaining forty years of his life. For seven of these years he wrought among the Visigoths beyond the Danube, till the success which attended his labours, and the growing numbers of his flock, drew down the persecution of the still pagan chief of the tribe. This " sacrilegus judex " has been identified with Athanaric, a later persecutor, probably without sufficient ground. The persecution was so severe that, to save his flock from extinction or dispersion, Ulfilas decided to withdraw both himself and his people from its range. With the consent of the emperor Constantius, he led them across the Danube, " a great body of the faithful," and settled in Mcesia at the foot of the range of Humus, and near the site of the modern Tirnova (348). Here they developed into a peace-loving pastoral people.
The life of Ulfilas during the following thirty-three years is marked only by one recorded incident, his visit to Constantinople in 360, to attend the council convened by the Arian or Homoian party. His work and influence were not, however, confined to his own immediate flock, but radiated by means of his writings (homilies and treatises), and through the disciples he despatched as missionaries, among all the tribes of the Gothic stock beyond the Danube. By this time probably be had made some progress with his version of the Scriptures, and copies of parts of it would begin to circulate. Thus the church beyond the Danube, which had not been extinguished on Ulfilas's withdrawal, began to grow once more in numbers and importance, and once more had to undergo the fires of persecution. Catholic missionaries had not been wanting in the meanwhile, and in the indiscriminate persecution by Krafft gives 313 as the date, Matz 318.
Athanaric between 370 and 375 Catholics and Arians stood and fell side by side. The religious quarrel either accentuated, or was accentuated by, political differences, and the rival chiefs, Athanaric and Frithigern, appeared as champions of Paganism and Christianity respectively. Then followed the negotiations with the emperor Valens, the general adhesion of the Visigoths under Frithigern to Arian Christianity, the crossing of the Danube by himself and a host of his followers, and the troubles which culminated in the battle of Adrianople and the death of Valens (378). The part played by Ulfilas in these troubbons times cannot be ascertained with certainty. It may have been be who, as a " presbyter Christiani ritus " conducted negotiations with Valens before the battle of Adrianople ; but that he headed a previous embassy asking for leave for the Visigoths to settle on Roman soil, and that he then, for political motives, professed himself a convert to the Arian creed, favoured by the emperor, and drew with him the whole body of his countrymen, - these and other similar stories of the orthodox church historians appear to be without foundation. The death of Valens, followed by the succession and the early conversion to Catholicism of Theodosius, dealt a fatal blow to the Arian party within the empire. Ulfilas lived long enough to see what the end must be. Hardships as well as years must have combined to make him an old man, when in 381 he was sent for to Constantinople. The emperor had summoned him, for what purpose cannot be clearly ascertained. A split seems to have taken place among the Arians at Constantinople. Party riots were too familiar there, and a fierce dispute over a theological dogma, however abstruse, placed the peace of the city, if not the security of the palace, in jeopardy. Ulfilas was summoned to meet the innovators, and either by argument or by influence to induce them to surrender the opinion which caused the dispute. His pupil Auxentius describes how, " in the name of God," he set out upon his way, hoping to prevent the teaching of these new heretics from reaching "the churches of Christ by Christ committed to his charge." No sooner had he reached Constantinople than he fell sick, "having pondered much about the council," and before he had put his hand to the task which had brought him he died, probably in January 381. A few days later there died, also in Constantinople, his old enemy and persecutor, Athanaric.
The Arianism of Ulfilas was a fact of pregnant consequence for his people, and indirectly for the empire. It had been his lifelong faith, as we learn from the opening words of his own testament" Ego Ulfilas serum sic credtdi." If, as seems probable from the circumstances of his ordination, he was a Semi-Arian and a follower of Eusebius in 341, at a later period of his life he departed from this position, and vigorously opposed the teaching of his former leader. He appears to have joined the Homoian party, which took shape and acquired influence before the council of Constantinople in 360, where he adhered with the rest of the council to the creed of Ariminum, with the addendum that in future the terms t`nrocrractis and ot)crta should be excluded from Christological definitions. Thus we learn from Auxentius that he condemned Homoousians and Homoiousians alike, adopting for himself the Homoian formula, "filium similem esse patri suo." This Arian form of Christianity was imparted by Ulfilas and his disciples to most of the tribes of the Gothic stock, and persisted among them, in spite of the persecution, hatred, and political disasters it involved, for two centuries.
The other legacy bequeathed by Ulfilas was of less questionable value. His version of the Scriptures (see Gonne LANGUAGE, VOL x. p. 852) is his greatest monument as a way-breaker and a scholar. By it he became the first to raise a barbarian tongue to the dignity of a literary language ; and the skill, knowledge, and adaptive ability it displays make it the crowning testimony of his powers as well as of his devotion to his work.
The personal qualities of the man may be inferred from his pupil's description of him as "of most upright conversation, truly a confessor of Christ, a teacher of piety, and a preacher of truth, - a man whom I am not competent to praise according to his merit, yet altogether keep silent I dare not."
Literature. - Waitz, Des Lobel' des Ulfilas, 1840; Krafft., Kirehengesehichte der Dadsehen Volker, Abth. 1., 1854; Id., article " Ulfilas," In Iierzog's RealeneyklovoL xvl., 1885; Id., De Fontibus Ppm Arianism(• Bessell, Des Dben des Ulfilas, 18fi0; C. A. Scott, Ulfilas, Apostle of the Goths, 1880. See also "Gothic Language" under Gams. (C. A. S.) ULM, an ancient and important commercial town in Wiirtemberg, and an imperial fortress of the first class, is situated on the left bank of the Danube, in a fertile plain at the foot of the Swabian Alps, 45 miles to the south-east of Stuttgart and 63 miles to the north-west of Munich. The town, quaintly built with narrow and confined streets, still preserves the dignified and old-fashioned appearance of an ancient imperial town, and contains many mediieval buildings, both of historic and of artistic interest. Among these, besides numerous handsome private houses, are the town-house, of the 16th century, in the Transition style from late Gothic to Renaissance; the Kornhaus and market-buildings ; the Ehingerhaus or Neubronnerhaus, now containing the industrial museum ; the "new building," erected in 1603 on the site of a palace of Charlemagne ; and the commandery of the Teutonic order, built in 1712-18 on the site of a habitation of the order dating from the 13th century. By far the most important and conspicuous building in Ulm, however, is the magnificent early Gothic cathedral, next to the cathedral of Cologne the largest church in Germany, and capable of containing 30,000 people. Begun in 1377, and carried on at intervals till the 16th century, the building was long left unfinished ; but in 1844 the work of restoration and completion was undertaken, and has steadily progressed ever since. Ulm cathedral has double aisles and a pentagonal apsidal choir, but no transepts. Its length (outside measurement) is 464 feet, its breadth 159 -feet ; the nave is 136 feet high and 47i wide ; the aisles, which are covered with rich net-vaulting, are 68 feet in height. The massive and richly decorated square tower in the centre of the west facade, for centuries terminated by a temporary spire, is now being completed according to the original plans, by the addition of an octagonal story and a tall open spire, which is to be carried up to the height of 534 feet. The towers of the choir have also been rebuilt in the course of the present restoration ; they are 282 feet high. The interior, which is unusually well lighted, produces an impression of much dignity from the great height of the nave, the absence of obtrusive decoration, and the massive manner in which the walls and piers are treated. It contains some fine stained glass, the largest organ in Germany (1856), and a number of interesting old paintings and carvings by Syrlin, Engelberger, and other masters of the Swabian school. The cathedral belongs to the Protestant Church. Trinity Church dates from 1617-21 ; and there are also a Roman Catholic church and a modern synagogue in the town. The Danube, joined by the Iller just above the town and by the Blau just below, becomes navigable at this point, so that Ulm occupies the important commercial position of a terminal river-port. The trade, especially in wood and grain, has an upward tendency ; and the Ulm market for leather and cloth is also rising in importance. Ulm is famous for its vegetables (especially asparagus), barley, beer, pipe-bowls, and sweet cakes (Ulmer Ziickerbrot). Bleaching, brewing, and brass-founding are carried on, as well as a large miscellany of manufactures, including hats, metal goods, agricultural implements, tobacco and cigars, cement, paper, and chemicals. The population in 1886 was 33,611.
The various routes which converge at Ulm have made it at all times a strategic point of great importance, and it has long been a fortress of the first rank. In 1844-59 the German Confederation carefully fortified it with walls, ramparts, and ditches, and in 1876 the new German empire added a very comprehensive outer girdle of detached forts, culminating in the powerful citadel of Wilhel fits-burg. The defensive works embrace also the Bavarian town of ' Neu-Ulm (7823 inhabitants), on the opposite bank of the Danube, united with the older city by two stone bridges. -Ulm is thus the basis of operations for the German army behind the Black Forest, Ulm is mentioned as early as the year 854. It subsequently realism acknowledged, an attempt being made to exhibit idealism became a free imperial city, and the leading town in Swabia. In and realism as respectively incomplete but mutually complementary the 15th century it attained the summit of its prosperity, and systems. Ulrici's later works, while expressing the same views, ruled over a district of many square miles, with a population, rural are largely occupied in proving the existence of God and the soul and urban, of about 60,000. Towards the end of the Middle Ages from the basis of scientific conceptions, and in opposition to the it frequently appears at the head of various Swabian leagues. In materialistic current of thought then popular in Germany.
Bavaria, and in 1810 to Wiirtemberg. In 1805 General Mack, ULTRAMARINE, a magnificent blue pigment, which with 33,000 Austrians, capitulated to Napoleon at Ulm. Ulm is occurs in nature as a proximate component of LAPIS LAremarkable in the history of German literature as the spot where the " meistersanger " lingered longest, preserving, without text ZULI (q.v.). Lapis lazuli has long been known as a precious and without notes, the traditional lore of their craft. In 1830 stone, and highly valued as such, and as early at least as there were twelve " meistersamger" alive at Ulm; but in 1839 the the 11th century the art of extracting a blue pigment from four survivors formally made over their insignia and guild property it was practised. From the beginning of the 16th century to a modern singing society, and closed the record of " Meistergesang " in Germany. The last formal meeting of the Nuremberg this pigment began to be imported into Europe from " over " meister " took place in 1770. the sea," as azurrum ultraniarinum. To extract it, the