Teller, Wilhelm Abraham
theological fresco christianity german
TELLER, WILHELM ABRAHAM (1734-1804), was the son of the Leipsic clergyman, Romanus Teller, -who edited the earlier volumes of the Englisches Bibelwerk (in 19 vols., 1749-70), an adaptation for German readers of the exegetical works of Willet, Ainsworth, Patrick, Poole, Henry, and others. Teller was born at Leipsic on 9th January 1734, and studied philosophy and theology in the university there. Amongst the men whose influence mainly determined his theological position and line of work was J. A. Ernesti. His writings present rationalism in its course of development from Biblical supernaturalism to the borders of deistical naturalism. His first learned production was a Latin translation of Kennicott's Dissertation on the State of the Printed Hebrew Text of the Old Testament (1756), which was followed the next year by an essay in which he expounded his own critical principles. In 1761 he was appointed pastor and professor of theology in the university of Helmstedt. Here he pursued his exegetical, theological, and historical researches, the results of which appeared in his Lehrbuch des christlichen Claubens (1764). This work threw the entire theological world into commotion, as much by the novelty of its method as by the heterodoxy of its matter, and more by its omissions than by its positive teaching, though everywhere the author seeks to put theological doctrines in a decidedly modern form. In consequence of the storm of indignation the book provoked, Teller eagerly accepted an invitation from the Prussian cultus minister to the post of prebendary of Köln on the Spree, with a seat in the Berlin consistory (1767). Here he found himself in the company of the rationalistic theologians of Prussia - Sack, Spalding, and others - and became one of the leaders of the rationalistic fortified and separated from the suburbs by a glacis, now party, and one of the chief contributors to Nicolai's Allge- partly converted into a park. Temesvhr is the seat of the meine Deutsche Bibliothek. Teller was not long in making Roman Catholic bishop of Csanad and of a Greek bishop, use of his freer position in Berlin. In 1772 appeared the as also of several Government departments of great immost popular of his books, 1475rterbuch zum Neuen Testa- portance, and of one of the fifteen army corps of the meat (6th ed., 1805). The object of this work is to recast Austrian-Hungarian army. The majority of the inhabit-the language and ideas of the New Testament and give ants follow industrial and commercial pursuits, and carry them the form of 18th-century illuminism. Thus Heb. on a brisk trade in grain, flour, spirits, fruits, flax, and xiii. S signifies the permanence of Christ's teaching, and, as hemp with the neighbouring districts and with Roumania the New Testament has no word for Christianity, "Christ " and Servia, by means of the Arad-Temesvar and the may mean sometimes His person and at others His doctrine Austrian-Hungarian State Railways, as well as by the Bega or the Christian religion ; Col. i. 15 signifies the priority of Canal and by road. The town possesses many charitable Christ to all other Christians. By this lexicon Teller had and educational establishments, and is a favourite place put himself amongst the most advanced rationalists, and of residence on account of its neatness and cleanliness. It his opponents charged him with the design of overthrowing has been lighted by electricity since 1883. Among the build-positive Christianity altogether. The edict of Wollner ings specially worthy of notice are some fine old churches, (1788), and Teller's manly action as consistorialrath in de- a new theatre, and a synagogue in the Byzantine style. fiance of it, led the Prussian Government to pass upon him Temesvar played an important part in the Turkish wars and the sentence of suspension for three months, with forfeiture in that of 1848-49. The population was 37,500 in 1886. of his stipend. He was not, however, to be moved by TEMMINCK, KONRAD JACOB (1778-1857), keeper of such means, and (1792) issued his work Die Religion der the Leyden museum of natural history, was especially Vollkommeneren, an exposition of his theological position, distinguished as an ornithologist, and was the author of in which he advocated at length the idea, subsequently many magnificently illustrated systematic works. See often urged, of "the perfectibility of Christianity," - that ORNITHOLOGY, vol. xviii. p. 11 sq.
is, of the ultimate transformation of Christianity into a TEMPE. See THESSALY.
scheme of simple morality, with a complete rejection of TEMPERA, or DISTEMPER,' is a method of painting in all specifically Christian ideas and methods. This book which solid pigments are employed, mixed with a water represents the culminating point of German illuminism, medium 2 in which some kind of gum or gelatinous sub-and is separated by a long process of development from stance is dissolved to prevent the colours from scaling off. the author's Lehrbuch. Teller died on 9th December 1804. Tempera is called in Italy "fresco a secco," as distinguished In addition to the above works he wrote Anleitung zur from "fresco buono," or true fresco, painted on freshly Religion itherhaupt and rum Allgemeinen des Christenthums laid patches of stucco. The peculiarities of true fresco insbesondere (1792) ; and, besides his contributions to the are described in vol. ix. p. 769 sq. The disadvantages Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek, he edited a popular and of tempera painting are that it will not bear exposure to practically useful Afagazin far Prediger (1792-1801). the weather ; the pigments merely lie on the surface and See Gass, Geschichte der protestantischen Dognatik, iv. pp. 206- do not sink into the stucco, as is the case with true fresco 222 • Tholuck, art. "Teller," in Herzog•Plitt's Realencykl. ; Poring, pigments ; moreover, the medium used being soluble in Deutsche Kanzelredner des 18ten, and 19ten Jahrh., p. 506 sq. ; water, will not stand the rain. Its advantages are that, Pusey, Causes of the Late Rationalistic Character of German, Theology (1828), p. 150. the painter can work at leisure, and can also transfer or