TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS, Lucius, son of the preceding, and son-in-law of Servius Tullius, immediately succeeded the latter without any of the forms of election, and proceeded at once to repeal the recent reforms in the constitution, seeking to establish a pure despotism in their place. Wars were waged with the Latins and Etruscans, but the lower classes were deprived of their arms, and employed in erecting monuments of regal magnificence, while the sovereign recruited his armies from his own retainers and from the forces of foreign allies. The completion of the fortress temple on the Capitoline confirmed his authority over the city, and a fortunate marriage of his son to the daughter of Octavius Manilius of Tusculum secured him powerful assistance in the field. His reign was characterized by bloodshed and violence ; the outrage of his son Sextus upon Lucretia precipitated a revolt, which led to the expulsion of the entire family, after Tarquin had reigned twenty-five years. All efforts to force his way back to the throne were vain, and he died a lonely and childless old man at Cumin. See vol. xx: p. 734.