ERLANGEN, a town of Bavaria, in the district of Middle Franconia, is situated at the confluence of the Schwabaeh with the Regnitz, eleven miles N.N.W. of Nuremberg, and on the railway between that town and Bamberg. It is surrounded by walls, and divided into an old and new town, the latter consisting of wide, straight, and well-built streets. It possesses a large brewery, the beer of which is in high repute in Germany; and among its other industries are stocking and glove snaking, glass and tobacco manufacture, and cotton•spinning. It is, however, best known as the seat of a university founded by Frederick, margrave of Bayreuth, who in 1742 established a university at Bayreuth, but in 1743 changed its situation to Erlangen. A statue of this margrave, erected in 1843 by King Louis of Bavaria, stands in the market-place, facing the university buildings.
The university occupies the ancient palace of the margraves of Bayreuth, and has faculties of arts, medicine, and theology. At the beginning its endowments were small, but they have latterly become considerable, especidly through the benefactions of the margrave Alexander. The number of students in attendance in 1876 was 429. Connected with the university are a library containing 110,000 volumes and 1000 manuscripts, an infirmary, an eye hospital, a maternity hospital, an anatomical museum, and a botanic garden. Erlangen also possesses a gymnasium and a commercial school. The town owes the foundation of its prosperity chiefly to the French Protestant refugees who settled here on the revocation of the Edict of Nantes and introduced various manufactures. In 1017 Erlangen was transferred from the bishopric of Warzburg to that of Bamberg ; in 1361 it was transferred to that of Bohemia ; it came into the possession of the counts of Nuremberg in 1400, of the margraves of Bayreuth in 1541, of Prussia in 1791, and of Bavaria in 1809. The population in 1875 was 13,597.
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