ESS, JOHANN ilEtsmett VAN (1772-1847), a Catholic theologian, was born at Warburg,Westphalia, 15th February 1772. He was educated at the Dominican gymnasium of his native town, and in 1700 entered, as a novice, the Benedictine abbey of Marienminster, in the bishopric of Paderborn. His Benedictine name was Leander. He was priest at Schwalenberg from 1799 to 1812, after which he became extraordinary professor of theology and joint-director of the teachers' seminary at Marburg. In 181S he received the doctorate of theology and of canonical law. In 1807, in conjunction with his cousin, lie published a German translation of the New Testament, and as its circulation was forbidden by the pope, lie published in 1808 is defence ef his views, entitled A usvige aus den Heiligen Vatern and astderen Lehrern, der Katholischen Kirche fiber des nothitenelige send niitzliche Bibellesen. An improved edition of this tractate was published in 1816, under the title Gedanken. iiber Bibel soul Bibellehre, and in the same year appeared Ii pus war die KW den ersten Christen ? In 1818 he published Die Am nicht. yin Bach fur Prieste•, and this was followed in 1819 by a German translation of the Old Testament. In 1822 he resigned his offices at Marburg order to devote his whole time to the defence of his views regarding Bible reading by the people, and to endeavour to promote the circulation of his Bible translations ; and in 1840, conjointly, with his pupil Wetzer, he completed a German translation of the Scriptures of the 01(1 and New Testaments. Ile died at Affolde•bach in the Odenwald, 13th October 1817.