school schools children public board child time teaching instruction life
EDUCATION. This article is mainly concerned with the history of educational theories in the chief crises of' their development. It has not been the object of the writer to give a history of the practical working of these theories, and still less to sketch the outlines of the science of teaching, which may be more conveniently dealt with under another head. The earliest education is that of the family. The child must be trained not to interfere with its parents' convenience, and to acquire those little arts which will help in maintaining the economy of the household. It was long before any atteznpt was made confirmal the monopoly of the cler1,7. The schools of Judea and Egypt were ecclesiastical. The Jews had but little effect on the progress of science, but our obli-gations to the priests of the Nile valley are great indeed. Much of their learning is obscure to us, but we have reason to conclude that there is no branch of science in which they did not progress at least so far as observation and careful registration of facts could carry them. They were a source of enlightenment to surrounding nations. Not only the great laWgiver of the Jews, but those who were most active in stimulating the nascent energies of Hellas were careful to train themselves in the wisdom of the Egyptians. Greece, in giving an undying name to the literature of Alexandria, was only repaying the debt which she had incurred centuries before. Education became secular in countries where the priesthood did not exist as a separate body. At Rome, until Greece took her conqueror 2,aptive, a child was trained for the duties of life in tbe forum and the senate house. The Greeks were the first to develop a science of education distinct from ecclesiastical training. They divided their subjects of study into music and gymnas-tics, the one comprising all mental, the other all physical training. Music was at first little more than the study of the art of expression. But the range of intellectual educa-tion which had been developed by distinguished musical teachers was further widened by the Sophists, until it received a new stimulus and direction from the work of Socrates. Who can forget the picture left us by Plato of the Athenian paliestra, in which Socrates was sure to find his most ready listeners and his most ardent disciples? In the intervals of running, wrestling, or tbe bath, the young Phxdrus or Themtetus discoursed with the philosophers who had come to watch them on the good, the beautiful, and the true. The lowest efforts of their teachers were to fit them to maintain any view they might adopt with a.cuteness, Jegance, readiness, and good taste. Their highest efforts were to stimulate a craving for the knowledge of the unknowable, to rouse a dissatisfaction with received opinions, and to excite a curiosity which grew stronger with the revelation of each successive mystery-. Plato is the author of the first systematic treatise on education. He deals with the subject in his earlier dialogues, he enters into it with great fulness of detail in the Republic, and it occu-pies an important position in the LaW8. The views thus expressed differ considerably in particulars, and it is there-fore difficult to give concisely the precepts drawn up by him for our obedience. But the same spirit underlies his whole teaching. He never forgets that the beautiful is undistin-guishable from the true, and that the mind is best fitted to solve difficult problems which has been trained by the enthusiastic contemplation of art, Plato proposes to intrust education to the state. He lays great stress on the influence of race and blood. Strong and worthy children are likely to spring from strong and worthy parents. Music and gymnastics are to develop the emotions of young men during their earliest years, - the one to strengthen their character for the contest of life, the other t.o excite in them varying feelings of resentment or tenderness. Reverence, the ornament of youth, is to be called forth by well-chosen fictions; a long a,nd rigid training in science is to precede discussion on more important subjects. At length the goal is reached, and the ripest wisdom is ready- to be applied to the most important practice.
The great work of Quintilian, although mainly- a treatise on oratory-, also contains incidentally- a complete sketch of a theoretical education. His object is to show us how to form the man of practice. But what a high conception of practice is his. He wrote for a race of rulers. He incul-cates much which has been attributed to the wisdom of a later age. He urges the importance of studying individual dispositions, and of tenderness in discipline and punishment. The Romans understood no systematic training except in oratory. In their eyes every citizen was a born commander, and they knew of no science of government and politica) economy. Cicero speak.s slightingly even of jurisprudence. Any one, he says, can make himself a jurisconsult in a )s-eek, but an orator is the production of a lifetime. No statement can be less true than that a perfe,ct orator is a perfect man. But wisdom and philanthropy broke even through that barrier, and the training which Quintilian ex-pounds to us as intended only for the public speaker would, in the language of Milton, fit a man to perform. justly, wisely, and magnanimously all the offices, both public and private, of peace and war.
Such are the ideas which the old world has left us. On one side man beautiful, a,ctive, clever, receptive, emotconal, quick to feel, to show his feeling, to argue, to refine ; greedy of the pleasures of the world, perhaps a little neglectful of its duties, fearing restraint as an unjust stinting of the bounty of nature, inquiring eagerly into every- secret, strongly attached to the things of this life, but elevated by an unabated striving after the highest ideal; setting no value but upon faultless abstractions, ar_d seeing reality only in heaven, on earth mere shadows, phantoms, and copies of the unseen. On the other side man practical, energetic, eloquent, tinged but not imbued with philo-sophy, trained to spare neither himself nor others, reading and thinking only with an apology ; best engaged in defend-ing a political principle, in maintaining with gravity and solemnity the conservation of ancient freedom, in leading armies through unexplored deserts, establishing roads, fortresses, settlements, the results of conquest, or in order-ing and superintending the slow, certain, and utter annihila-tion of some enemy of Rome. Has the modern world ever surpassed their type Can we in the present day produce anything by education except by combining, blend-in,g, and modifying the self-culture of the Greek or the self-sacrifice of the Roman ?
The literary education of the earliest generation of 1 Christians was obtained in the pagan schools, in those great imperial academies which existed even down to tbe 5th century, which flourished in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and attained perhaps their highest development and efficiency in Gaul. The first attempt to provide a special education for Christians was made at Alexandria, and is illustrated by the names of Clement and Origen. The later Latin fathers took a bolder stand, and rejected the suspicious aid of heathenism. Tertullia,n, Cyprian, and Jerome wished the antagonism between Christianity and Paganism to be recognized from the earliest years, and even Augustine con-demned with harshness the culture to which be owed so much of his influence. The education of the Middle Ages . was either that of the cloister or the castle. They stoad in • sharp contrast to each other. The object of the one was to form the young monk, of the other the young knight. We should indeed be ungrateful if we forgot the services of those illustrious monasteries, Monte Cassino, Fulda, or Tours, which kept alive the torch of learning throughout the dark ages, but it would be equally mistaken to attach an exaggerated importance to the teaching which they pro-vided. Long hours were spent in the duties of the church, and in learning to take a part in elaborate and useless ceremonies. A most important part of the monastery was the writing room, where missals, psalters, and breviaries were copied and illuminated, and too often a masterpiece of classic literature was effaced to make room for a treatise of one of the fathers or the sermon of an abbat. The discipline was hard ; the rod ruled all with indiscriminatin,,cr and impartial severity-. HONT many generations have bad to suffer for the floggings of those times! Hatred of learn-ing, antagonism between the teacher and the taught, the belief that no trainimr can-be effectual which is not repul-sive and distasteful, tEat no subject is proper for instruction which is acquired with ease and pleasure, - all these idols of false education have their root and origin in monkish cruelty. The joy of human life would have been in danger of being stamped out if it had not been for the warmth and colour of a young knight's boyhood. He was equally well broken in to obedience and hardship, but the obedience was the willing service of a mistress whom he loved, and the hardship the permission to share the dangers of a leader whom he emulated. The seven arts of monkish training were Grammar, Dialectics, Rhetoric, Music, Arithmetic, Geometry, Astro-nomy, which together formed the trivium and quadrivium, the seven years' course, the divisions of which have pro-foundly affected our modern training. One of the earliest treatises based on this method was that of Martianus Capella, who in 470 published his KS'atyra, in nine books. The first two were devoted to the marriage between Philology and Mercury, the last seven were each devoted to the consideration of one of these liberal arts. Cassiodorus, who wrote De Septem Disciplinis about 500, was also largely used as a text book in the schools. Astronomy was taught by the Cisio-Janus, a collection of doggrel hexameters like the Propria gum maribus, which contained the chief festivals in each month, with a meinoria technica for recollecting when they occurred. The seven knightly accomplishments, as historians tell us, were to ride, to swim, to shoot with the bow, to box, to hawk, to play chess, and to make verses. The verses thus made were not in Latin, bald imitations of Ovid or Horace, whose pagan beauties were wrested into the service of religion, but sonnets, ballads, and canzonets in soft Provencal or melodious Italian. In nothing, perhaps, is the difference between these two forms of education more clearly shown than in their relations to women. A young monk was brought up to regard a woman as the worst among the many temptations of St Antony. His life knew no domestic tenderness or affection. He was surrounded and cared for by celibates, to be himself a celibate. A page was trained to receive his best reward and worst punish-ment from the smile or frown of the lady- of the castle, and as he grew to naanhood to cherish an absorbing passion as the strongest stimulus to a noble life, and the contempla-tion of female virtue, as embodied in an Isolde or a Beatrice, as the truest earnest of future immortality.
Both these forms of education disappeared before the B,enaissance and the Reformation. But we must not suppose that no efforts were made to improve upon the narrowness of the schoolmen or the idleness of chivalry. The schools of Charles the Great have lately been investi-gated by Mr Mu'linger, but we do not find that they materially advanced the science of education. Vincent of Beauvais has left us a very complete treatise on education, written about the year 1245. He was the friend and counsellor of St Louis, and we may discern his influence in the instructions which were left by that sainted king for the guidance of his son and daughter through life. The end of this period was marked by the rise of univer-sities. Bologna devoted itself to law, and numbered 12,000 students at the end of the 12th century. Salerno adopted as its special province the study of medicine, and Paris was thronged with students from all parts of Europe, who were anxious to devote themselves to a, theology which passed by indefinite gradations into philosophy. The 14th and 15th centuries witnessedthe rise of universities and academies in almost every portion of Europe. Perhaps the inost interesting among these precursors of a higher culture were the Brethren of the Common Life, who were domiciled in the rich meadows of the Yssel, in the Northern Nether-lands. The metropolis of their organization was Deventer, the best known name among them that of Gerhard Groote. They devoted themselves with all humility and self-sacrifice to the education of children. Their schools were crowded. Bois-le-duc numbered 1200 pupils, Zwolle 1500. For a hundred years no part of Europe shone with a brighter lustre. As the divine comedy of Dante represents for us the learning and piety of the Middle Ages in Italy-, so the Imitation of Thomas a Kempis keeps alive for us the memory of the purity and sweetness of the Dutch com-munity. But they had not sufficient strength to preserve their supremacy among the necessary developments of the age. They could not support the glare of the new Italian learning ; they obtained, and it may be feared deserved, the title of obscurantists. The Epistolce Obscurorum Virorum, the wittiest squib of the Middle Ages, which was so true and so subtle in its satire that it was hailed as a blow struck in defence of the ancient learning, consists in great part of the lamentations of the brethren of Deventer over the new age, which they could not either comprehend or withstand. The education of the Renaissance is best represented by the name of Erasmus, that of the Reformation by the names of Luther and Melanchthon. We have no space to give an account of that marvellous resurrection of the mind and spirit of Europe when touched by the dead hand of an extinct civilization. The history of the revival of letters belongs rather to the general history of literature than to that of education. But there are two names whoni we ought not to pass over. Vittorino da Feltre was summoned by the Gonzagas to Mantua in 1424 ; he was lodged in o, spacious palace, with galleries, halls, and colonnades decorated with frescoes of playing children. In person he was small, quick, and lively - a born schoolmaster, whose whole time was spent in devotion to his pupils. We are toM of the children of his patron, how Prince Gonzaga recited 200 verses of his own composition at the age of fourteen, and how Princess Cecilia wrote elegant Greek at the age of ten. Vittorino died in 1477. He seems to have reached the highest point of excellence as a practical schoolmaster of the Italian Renaissance. Castiglione, on the other hand, has left us in his Cortigiano the sketch of a cultivated nobleman in those most cultivated days. He shows by what precepts and practice the golden youths of Verona and Venice were formed, who live for us in the plays of Shakespeare as models of knightly excellence. For our instruction, it is better to have recourse to the pages of Erasmus. He has written the most minute account of his method of teaching. The child is to be formed into a good Greek and Latin scholar and a, pious man. He fully grasps the truth that improvement must be natural and gradual. Letters are to be taught playing. The rule,s of grammar are to be few and short. Every means of arousing interest in the work is to be fully employed. Erasmus is no Ciceronian. Latin is to be taught so as to be of use - a living language adapted to modern wants. Children should learn an art - painting, sculpture, or architecture. Idleness is above all things to be avoided. The education of girls is as necessary and important as that of boys. Much depends upon home influence ; obe,dience must be strict, but not too severe. We must take account of individual peculiarities, and not force children iuto cloisters against their will. We shall obtain the best result by following nature. It is easy to see what a contrast this scherae presented to the monkish training, - to the routine of useless technicalities enforced amidst the shouts of teachers and the lamentations of the taught.
Still this culture was but for the few. Luther brought the schoolmaster into the cottage, and laid the foundations of the system which is the chief honour and strength of modern Germany, a system by which the child of the humblest peasant, by slow but certain gradations, receives the best education which the country can afford. The precepts of Luther found their way into the hearts of his countryman in short, pithy sent,ences, like the sayings of poor Richard. The purification and widening of education went hand in hand with the purification of religion, and these claims to affection are indissolubly united in the minds of his countrymen. Melanchthon, from his editions of school books and his practical labours in education, earned the title of Prceceptor Germani. Aristotle had been dethroned from his pre-eminence in the schools, and Melanclithon attempted to supply his place. He appreciated the importance of Greek, the terror of the obscurantists, and is the author of a Greek grammar. He wrote elementary books on each department of the trivium - grammar, aa.1 rhetoric. He made some way with. the studies of the ouath.ivinm, and wrote Initia doctrince Physicce, a priiner of physical science. He lectured at the university of Wittenberg, and for ten years, from 1519 to 1529, kept a schola privata in his own house, Horace was his flvourite classic. His pupils were taught to learn the whole of it by heart, ten lines at a, time. The tender refined lines of his well-known portraits show clearly the character of the painful, accurate scholar, and contrast with the burly powerful form of the genial Luther. He died in 1560, racked with anxiety for the church which he had helped to found. If he did not carry Protestantism into the heart of the peasant, he at least made it acceptable to the intellect of the man of letters.
We now come to the names of three theoretical and practical teachers who have exercised and are still exercis-ing a profound effect over education. The so-called Latin school, the parent of the gymnasium and the lycee, had spread all over Europe, and was especially flourishing in Germany. The programmes and time tables in use in these establishments have come down to us, and we possess notices of the lives and labours of many of the earliest teachers. It is not difficult to trace a picture ef the education which the Reformation offered to the middle cla,sses of Europe. Ample materials exist in German histories of educa-tion. We must confine ourselves to those moments which were of vital influence in the development of the science. One school stands pre-eminently before the rest, situated in that border city on the debatable land between France and Germany, which has known how to combine and reconcile the peculiarities of French and German culture. Strasburg, besides a school of theology which unites the depth of Germany to the clearness and vivacity of France, educated the gilded youth of the 16th century under Sturm, as it trained the statesmen and diplomatists of the 18th under Koch. John Sturm of Strasburg was the friend of Ascham, the author of the Scholonaster, and the tntor of Queen Elizabeth. It was Ascham who found Lady Jane Grey alone in her room at Bradgate bending her neck over the page of Plato when all the rest of her family were following the chase. Sturm was the first great head master, the progenitor of Busbys if not of Arnolds. He lived and worked till the age of eighty-two. He was a friend of all the most distinguished men of his age, the chosen repre-sentative of the Protestant cause in Europe, the ambassador to foreign powers. He was believed to be better informed than any man of his time of the complications of foreign politics. Rarely did an envoy pass from France to Germany without turning aside to profit by his experience. But the chief energies of his life vvere devoted to teaching. He drew his scholars from the whole of Europe ; Portugal, Poland, England sent their contingent to his halls. In 1578 his school numbered several thousand students ; he supplied at once the place of the cloister and the castle. What he most insisted upon was the teaching of Latin, not the conversational lingua franca of Erasmus, but pure, elegant Ciceronian Latinity. He may be called the intro-ducer of scholarship into the schools, a scholarship which as yet took little account of Greek. His pupils would write. elegant letters, deliver elegant Latin speeches, be familiar, if not with the thoughts, at least with the language or. the ancients, would be scholars in order that they might be gentlemen. Our space will not permit u.s to trace the whole course of his influence, but he is in all probability as much answerable as any one for the euphuistic refinement which overspread Europe in the 16th century, and which went far to ruin and corrupt its literatures. Nowhere perhaps had he more effect than in England. Our older public schools, on breaking with the ancient faith, looked to Sturm as their model of Protestant education. His name and example became familiar to us by the exertions of his friend Ascharn. Westminster, under the long reign of Busby, received a form which was generally accepted as the type of a gentleman's education. The Public School Commission of 1862 found that the lines laid down by the great citizen of Strasburg, and copied by his admirers, had remained unchanged until within the memory of the present generation. Wolfgang Ratke Ratichius was born in Holstein in 1571. He anticipated some of the best improvements in the method of teaching which have been made in modern times. He was like many of those who have tried to improve existing methods in advance of his age, and he was rewarded for his labours at Augsburg, Weimar, and Kfithen by persecution and imprisonment. Can we wonder that education has improved so slowly -when so much pains has been taken to silence and extinguish those who have devoted themselves to its improvement? His chief rules were as follows. 1. Begin every-thing with prayer. 2. Do everything in order, following the course of nature. 3. One thing at a time. 4. Often repeat the same thing. 5. Teach everything first in the mother tongue. 6. Proceed from the mother tongue to other languages. 7. Teach without compulsion. Do not beat children to make them learn. Pupils must love their masters, not hate them. Nothing should be learnt by heart. Sufficient time should be given to play and recreation. Learn one thing before going on to another. Do not teach for two hours consecutively. 8. Uniformity in teaching, also in school books, especially grammars, which may with. advantage be made comparative. 9. Teach a thing first, and then the reason of it. Give no rules before you have given the examples. Teach no language out of the gram-mar, but out of authors. 10. Let everything be taught by induction and experiment. Most of these precepts are accepted by all good teachers in the present day; all of them are full of wisdom. Unfortunately their author saw the faults of the teaching of his time more clearly than the ineans to remove them, and he was more successful in forming precepts than in carrying them out. Notwith-standing these drawbacks, lie deserves an honourable place among the forerunners of a rational education.
John Amos Comenius was the antithesis to Sturm, and a greater man than. Ratke. Born a Moravian, he passed a wandering life, among the troubles of the Thirty Years' War, in poverty and obscurity. 13ut his ideas were accepted by the most advanced thinkers of the age, notably in many re-spects by our own Alilton, and by Oxenstiern the chancellor of Sweden. His school books we.re spread throughout Europe. The Janua Linguarum 1?eserata was translated into twelve European and several Asiatic languages. His works, espe-cially the Didascalia magna, an encyclopfedia of the science of education, are constantly reprinted at the present day; and. the system which he sketched will be found to foreshadow the education of the future. He was repelled and disgusted by the long delays and pedantries of the schools. His ardent mind conceived that if teachers would but follow nature instead of forcing it against its bent, take full advantage of the innate desire for activity and growth, all men might be able to learn all things. Languages should be taught as the, mother tongue is taught, by conversations on ordinary topics ; pictures, object lessons, should be freely used; teaching should go hand in hand with a cheerful, elegant, and happy life. Comenius included in his course the teaching of the mother tongue, singing, economy, an( politics, the history of the world, physical geography, an( a knowledge of arts and handicrafts. But the principle oi which he most insisted, which forms the special point o his teaching, and in which he is followed by Milton, is tha the teachino. of words and things must go together hand hand. When we consider how much time is spent ove new languages, what waste of energy is lavished on inerl preparation, how it takes so long to lay a foundation tha there is no time to rear a building upon it, we must con elude that it is in the acceptance and development of thi; principle that the improvement of education will in tin future consist. Any one who attempts to inculcate thi: great reform will find that its first principles are containe( in the writings of Comenius. But this is not the whole o his claim upon our gratitude. He was one of the firs advocates of the teaching of science in schools. Hi; kindness, gentleness, and sympathy make him thi forerunner of Pestalozzi. His general principles of educe, tion would not sound strange in the treatise of Herber Spencer.
The Protestant schools were now the best in Europe, an( the monkish institutions were left to decay. Catholics woulc have remained behind in the race if it had not been for tin Jesuits. Ignatius Loyola, gave this direction to the orde; which he founded, and the programme of studies, which date: from the end of the 16th century, is in use, with certait modifications, in English Jesuit schools at the present day In 1550 the first Jesuit school was ope,ned in Germany; it 1700 the order possessed 612 colleges, 157 normal schools 59 noviciates, 340 residences, 200 missions, 29 professec. homes, and 24 universities. The college of Clermont bac, 3000 students in 1695. Every Jesuit college was divide(' into two parts, the one for higher the other for lowei education, - the studia superiora, and the studia inferiora The studia inferiora, answering to the modern gymnasium. was divided into five classes. The first three were classe: of grammar (rudiments), grammar (accidence), and syntax; the last two humanity and rhetoric. The motto of thc schools was lege, scribe, loquere, - you must learn not only tc read and write a dead language, but to talk. Purism wa: even more exarerated than by Sturm. No word might be used which did° not rest upon a special authority. The composition of Latin verses was strongly encouraged; and the performance of Latin pla27s. Greek was studied to some extent ; mathematics, geography, music, and the mother tongues were neglected. The studia superiora began with a philosophical course of two or three years. In the first year logic was taught, in the second the books ol Aristotle de arlo, the first book de generatione, and the 1Ife. teorologica. In the third year the second book de generati-one, the books de anima, and the Metaphysics. After the completion of the philosophical course the pupil studied theology for four years. The Jesuits used to the full the great engine of emulation. Their classes were divided into two parts, Romans and Carthaginians; swords, shields, and lances hung on the walls, and were carried off in triumph as either party claimed the victory by a fortunate answer. It would be unfair to deny the merits of the education of the Jesuits. Bacon speaks of them in more than one passage as the revivers of this most important art. Quum talis sis utinam noster esses. Descartes approved of their system; Chateaubriand regarded their suppression as a, calamity to civilization and enlightenment. They were probably the first to bring the teacher into close connec-tion with the taught. According to their ideal the teacher wa,s neither inclosed in a cloister, secluded from his pupils, nor did he keep order by stamping, raving, and flogginff. He was encouraged to apply his mind and soul to the mind iutd soul of his pupil; to study the nature, the disposition, the parents of his scholars; to follow nature as far as pos-sible, or rather to lie in wait for it and discover its weak points, a,nd where it could be most easily attacked. Doubtless the Jesuits have shown a love, devotion, and self-sacrifice in education, which is worthy of the highest pmise; no teacher who would compete with them can dare do less. Ou the other hand, they are open to grave accnsation. Their watchful care degenerated into surveillance, which lay-sehools have borrowed from them; their study of nature has led them to confession and direction. They have tracked out the soul to its recesses, that they might slay it there, and generate another in its place; they educated each mind a.ccording to its powers, that it might be a more subservient tool to their own purposes. They taught the accomplishments which the world loves, but their chief object was to amuse the mind and stifle inquiry-; they encouraged Latin verses, because they were a. convenient plaything on which powers might be exercised which. could have been better employed in understanding and. discussing higher subjects ; they were the patrons of school plays, of public prizes, declamations, examinations, and ether exhibitions, in which the parents were more considered than the boys ; they regarded the claims of education, not as a desire to be encouraged, but as a demand to be played with and propitiated ; they gave the best education of their time in order to acquire confidence, but they became the chief obstacle to the improvement of edacation ; they did not care for enlightenment, but only for the influence which they could derive from a supposed regard for enlightenment. levlate,ver may have been the service of Jesuits in past times, we have little to hope for them in the improvement of education at present. Governments have, on the whole, acted wisely by checking and suppressing their colleges. The ratio studiorum is antiquated and difficult to reform. In 1831 it was brought more into accordance with modern ideas by Roothaan, the general of the order. Ileckx his successor has, if anything, pursued a policy of retrogression. The Italian Government, iu takiegpossession of Rome, found that the pupils of the Collegio Romano were far below the level of modern requirements.
It may be imagined that, by this organization both. Catholics and Protestants were apt to degenerate into pedantry, both iu name and purpose. The school-master had a great deal too much the best of it. The Latin. school was tabulated and organized until every half hour of a boy's tinie was occupied ; the Jesuit school took posses-sion of the pupil body and soul. It was, therefore, to be expected that a stand should be made for common sense in the direction of practice rather than theory, of wisdom instead of learning. Montaigne has left us the most delightful utterances about education. Ile says that the faults of the education of his day- consist in over-estimating the intellect and rejecting morality, in exaggerating memory and depreciating useful knowledge. He recommends a tutor who should draw out the pupil's own power and originality, to teach how to live well ancl to die well, to enforce a lesson by practice, t.o put the mother tongue before foreign tongues, to teach all manly exercises, to educate the perfect man. Away with force and compulsion, with severity and the rod. John Locke, more than a hundred years afterwards, made a more powerful and systematic attack upon useless knowledge. His theory of the origin of ideas led him to assign great importance to education, while his knowledge of the operations of the human mind lends a special valne to his advice. His treatise has received in England more attention than it deserves, partly because we have so few books written upon the subject on which he treats. Part of his advice is use-less at the present day; part it would be well to follow, or at any rate to consider seriously, especially his condeinuae tion of repetition by heart as a means of strengthening the memory, and of Latin verses and themes. He sets before himself the production of the man, a, sound mind in a sound body. His knowledge of medicine gives great value to his advice on the earliest education, although he probably exaggerates the benefits of enforced hardships. He recom-mends home education without harshness or severity of discipline. Emulation is to be the chief spring of action; knowledge is far less valuable than a well-trained mind. He prizes that knowledge most which fits a man for the duties of the world, speaking languages, accounts history, law, logic, rhetoric, natural philosophy. He inculcates the importance of drawing, dancing, riding, fencing, and trades. The part of his advice which made most impression upon his conternporaries NUS the teaching of reading and arithmetic by well-considered games, the discouragement of an undUe compulsion and. punishment, and the teaching of language without the drudgery of grammar. In these respects he has undoubtedly anticipated modern disco-eries. He is a strong advocate for home education under a private tutor, and his bitterness against public schools is as vehe-ment as that of Cowper.
Far more important in the literature of this subject than the treatise of Locke is the Tractate of _Education by Milton, " the few observations," as he tells us, " which flowered off, and are, as it were, the burnishings of many studious and contemplative years spent in the search for civil and religious knowledge." This essay is addressed to Samuel Hartlih, a great friend of Comenius, and probably refers to a project of establishing a university- in London. " I will point you out," Milton says, " the right path of a virtuous and noble echication, - laborious, indeed, at first ascent, but else so smooth and green and full of goodly prospects and melodious sounds on every side, that the harp of Orpheus is not more charming. This is to be done between twelve and one-and.-twenty, in an academy containing about a hundred and thirty scholars, which shall be at once school and university, - not needing a remove to any other house of scholarship except it be some peculiar college of law and physics, where they mean to be practitioners." The important truth enunciated is quite iu the spirit of Comenius that the learning of things and words is to go hand in hand. The curriculum is very large. Latin, Greek, aritlunetic, geometry, agriculture, geography, physiolou, physics, trigonometry, fortification, architecture, engineering, navigation, anatomy, medicine, poetry, Italian, law both Roman and English, Hebrew with Chaldee and Syriac, history-, oratory, poetics. But the scholars are not to be book-worms. They' are to be trained for war, both on foot and on horseback, to be practised " in all the locks and. gripes of wrestling," they are to "recreate and. compose their travailed spirits with the divine harmonies of music heard or learnt." " In those vernal seasons of the year when the air is calm and pleasant, it were an injury and a sullenness against nature not to go out and see her riches, and partake in her rejoicing with heaven and earth. I should not then be a, persuader to them of studying much then, after two or three years that they have well laid their grounds, but to ride out in companies with prudent and staid guides to all the quarters of the land." The whole treatise is full of wisdom, and deserves to be studied again and again. Visionary. as it may- appear to some at first sight, if translated into the language, of our own day, it will be found to abound with sound practical advice. " Only," Milton says in conclusion, " I believe that this is not a bow for every man to shoot who counts himself a teacher, but will rajuire sinews almost equal to those which Homer gave Ulysses ; yet I am persuaded that it may prove much more easy in the essay than it now seems at a distance, and much more illustrious if God have so decided and this age have spirit and capacity- enough to apprehend," Almost while Milton was writing this treatise, he might have seen an attempt to realize something of his ideal in Port Royal. What a charm does this name awaken ! Yet 1 how few of us have made a pilgrimaga to that secluded valley! Here we find, for the first time in the modern world, the highest gifts of the greatest men of a country applied to the business of education. Arnauld, Lancelot, Nicole did not commence by being educational philosophers. They bega,n with a small school, and developed their method as they proceeded. Their success has seldom been surpassed. But a more lasting memorial than their pupils are the books which they sent out, which bear the name of their cloister. The Port _Royal _Logic, General Grammar, Greek, Latin, Italian, and Spanish 09-animal's, the Garden of Greek Roots which taught Greek to Gibbon, the Port Royal Geometry, and their translations of the classics held tho first place among school books for more than a century. The success of the Jansenists was too much for the jealousy of the Jesuits. Neither piety, nor wit, nor virtue could save them. A light was quenched which would have given an entirely different direction to the education of France and of Europe. No one can -visit without emotion that retired nook which lies hidden among the forests of Versailles, where the old brick dove-cot, the pillars of the church, the trees of the desert alone remain to speak to us of Pascal, Racine, and the Mere Ang6lique. The principles of Port Royal found some supporters in a later thne, in the better days of French education before monarchism and militarism had crushed the life out of the nation. Rollin is never mentioned without the epithet bon, a testimony to his wisdom, virtue, and simplicity. Fenelon may be reckoned as belonging to the same school, but he was more fitted to mix and grapple with mankind.
No history of education would be complete without the 1 name of August Hermann Francke, the founder of the school of Pietists, and of a number of institutions which DOW form almost a suburb in the town of Halle to which his labours were devoted. The first scenes of his activity were Leipzig and Dresden ; but in 1692, at the aze of 29, he was made pastor of Glaucha near Halle, a-nd professor in the newly- established university. Three years later he commenced his poor school with a capital of seven guelders which he found in the poor box of his house. At his death in 1727 he left behind him the following institutions : - a paedagogium, or training college, with 82 scholars and 70 teachers receiving education, and attendants; the Latin school of the orphan asylum, with 3 inspectors, 32 teachers, 400 scholars, and 10 servants ; the German town schools, with 4 inspectors, 98 teachers, 8 female teachers, and 1725 boys and girls. The establishment for orphan children contained 100 boys, 34 girls, and 10 attendants. A cheap public dining table was attended by 255 students and 360 poor scholars, and besides this there was an apothecary's arid a bookseller's shop. Francke's principles of education were strictly religious. Hebrew was included in his curriculum, but the heathen classicswere treatedwith slight respect. The Homilies of Macarius were read in the place of Thucydides. As might be expected, the rules laid down for discipline and moral training breathed a spirit of deep affection and sympathy. Francke's great merit, however, is to have left us a model of institutions by which children of all ranks may receive an education to fit them for any position in life. The Franckesehe Stiftungen are still, next to the university, the centre of the intellectual life of Halle, and the different schools which they contain give instruction to 3500 children.
1-Ve now come to the book which has had rnore influence I than any other on the education of later times. The _Emile of Rousseau was published in 1762. It produced an astounding effect througlout Europe. Those were days wheu the whole cultivated world vibrated to any touch of new philosophy. French had superseded Latin as the general medium of thought. French learning stood in the same relation to the rest of Europe as German learning does now ; and any discovery of D'Alembert, Rousseau, or Maupertuis travelled with inconceivable speed from Versailles to Schonbrunn, from the Spree to the Neva. Kant in his distant home of Konigsberg broke for one day through his habits, more regular than the town clock, and stayed at home to study the new revelation. The burthen of Rousseau's me.-..rsage was nature, such a nature as never did and never will exist, but still a name for an ideal worthy of our struggles. He revolted against the false civilization which he saw around him ; he was penetrated with sorrow at the shams of government and society, at the misery of the poor existing side by side with. the heartless-ness of the rich. The child should. be the pupil of nature. fle lays great stress on the earliest education. The first year of life is in every respect the inost important. Nature must be closely followed. The child's tears are petitions which should be granted. The naughtiness of children comes from weakness; make the child strong and he will be good. Children's destructiveness is a form of activity. Do not be too anxious to make children talk ; be satisfied with a small vocabulary. Lay aside all padded caps and baby jumpers. Let children learn to walk by learning that it hurts them to fall. Do not insist too much on the duty of obedience as on the necessity of submission to natural laws. Do not argue too much with children; educate the heart to wish for right actions ; before all things study,nature. The chief moral principle is do 9/0 one harm. Emile is to be taught by- the real things of life, by observation and experi-ence. At twelve years old he is scarcely to know what a book is ; to be able to read and write at fifteen is quite enough. We must first make him a man, and that chiefly by athletic exercises. Educate his sight to measure, count, and weigh accurately ; teach him to draw ; tune his ear to time and harmony ; give him simple food, but let him eat as much as he likes. Thus at twelve years old Emile is a real child of nature. His carriage and bearing are fair and confident, his nature open and candid, his speech sirnple and t,o the point; his ideas are few but clear ; he knows nothing by learning, much by experience. He has read deeply in the book of nature. His mind is not on his tongue but in his head. Ile speaks only one language, but knows what he is saying, and can do what he cannot describe. Routine and custom are unknown to him ; authority and example affect him not ; he does what he thinks right. Be understands nothing of duty and obedience, but he will do what you ask him, and will expect shnilar service of you in return. His strength and body are fully- developed ; he is first-rate at running, jumping, and judging distances. Should lie die at this age he will so far have lived his life. From twelve to fifteen Emile's praetical education is to continue. He is still to avoid books which teach not learning itself but to appear learned. He is to be taught and to practice some handicraft. Half the value of education is to waste time wisely, to tide over dangerous years with safety, until the character is better able to stand temptation. At fifteen a new epoch commences. The passions are awakened ; the care of the teacher should now redouble ; he should never leave the lieltn. Emile having gradually acquired the love of himself and of those immediately about him, will begin to love his kind. Now is the tiane to teach him histoty, and the machinery of society, the world as it is and as it might be. Still an encumbrance of useless and burdensome knowledge is to be avoided. Between this age and manhood Emile learns all that it is necessary for him to know. It is, perhaps, strange that a book in many respects so wild and fantastic should have produced so great a practical effect. In pursuance of its precepts, children went about naked, were not allowed to read, and when they- grew up wore the simplest clothes, and cared for little learning except the study of nature and Plutarch. The catastrophe of the French Revolution has made the importance of Emile less apparent to us. Much of the heroism of that time is doubtless duo to the exaltation produced by the sweeping away of abuses, and the approach of a brighter age. But we must not forget that the first generation of Emile was just thirty years old in 1792; that many of the Girondins, the Marseillais, the soldiers and generals of Carnot and Napoleon had been bred in that hardy school. There is no more interesting chapter in the history of education than the tracing back of epochs of special activity to the obscure source from which they arose. Thus the Whigs of the Reform Bill sprang from the wits of Edinburgh, the 'neroes of the Rebellion from the divines who translated the Bible, the martyrs of the Revolution from the philosophers of the Encyclopedia.
The teaching of Rousseau found its practical expression in the philanthropin of Dessau, a school founded by- 1 Basedow, the friend of Goethe and Lavater, one of the two I prophets between whom the world-ehild sat bodkin in that memorable post-chaise journey of which Goethe has left us an account. The principles of the teaching given in this establishment were very much those of Comenius, the com-bination of words and things. An amusing accoimt of the in-struction given in this school, which at thi time consisted of only thirteen pupils, has come down to us, a translation of which is given in the excellent work of Mr Quick on educational reformers. The little ones have gone through the oddest performances. They play at " word of command." Eight or ten stand in a line like soldiers, and Herr Wolke is officer. He gives the word in Latin, and they must do whatever he says. For instance when he says " clandii;s oculos," they all shut their eyes ; when he says " circumspicite," they look about them; " hnitamini sutorem," they draw the waxed thread like cobblers. Herr Wolke gives a thousand different commands in the drollest fashion. Another game, " the biding game," may also be described. Some one writes a name and hides it from the children, the name of some part of the body, or of a plant or animal, or metal, and the children guess what it is. Whoever guesses right gets an apple or a piece of cake; one of the visitors wrote " intestina," and told the children it was part of the body. Then the guessing began, one guessed caput, another nasus, another os, another manus, pes, digiti, pectus, and so forth for a long time, but one of them hits it at last. Next Herr Wolke wrote the name of a beast or quadruped, then came the guesses, leo, ursus, camelus, elephas, and so on, till one guessed right it was mus. Then a town was written, and they guessed Lisbon, Madrid, Paris, London, till a child won with St Petersburg. They had another game which was this. Herr Wolke gave the connnand in Latin, and they imitated the noises of different animals, and made the visitors laugh till they were tired. They roared like lions, crowed like cocks, mewed like eats, just as they were bid. Yet Kant found a. great deal to praise in this school, and spoke of its influence as one of the best hopes of the future, and as " the only school where the teachers had liberty to act according to their own methods and schemes, and where they were in free communication both among themselves and with all learned men throughout Germany."
A more successful labourer in the same school was E Salzmann, who bought the property of Schnepfenthal near Gotha in 1784, and established a school there, which still exists as a flourishing institution. He gave full scope tc the doctrines of the philanthropists ; the limits of learning were enlarged; study became a pleasure instead of a pain ; scope was given for healthy exercise; the school- became light, airy, and cheerful. A charge of superficiality and weakness was brought against this method of instruction; but the gratitude which our generation of teachers owes to the unbounded love and faith of these devoted men cannot be denied or refused. The end of the 18th ceotury saw a great development given to classical studies. The names of Cellarius, 0 esner, Emesti, and Heyne are perhaps more cele-bratedas scholars than asschoolmasters. To them we owe the great importance attached to the study of the classics, both on the Continent and in England. They brought into the schools the philology which F. A. Wolf had organized. for the universities. Pestalozzi, on the other hand, was completely and entirely devoted to education. His greatest merit is that he set an example of absolute self-abnegation, that he lived with his pupils, played, starved, and suffered with them, and clung to their minds and hearts with an affectionate sympathy which revealed to him every minute difference of character and disposition. Pestalozzi was born at Zurich in 1746. His father died when he was young, and he was brought up by his mother. His earliest years were spent in schemes for improving the condition of the people. The death of his friend Bluntschli turned him from political schemes, and induced him to devote himself to education. He married at 23, and bought a piece of waste land in Aargau, where he attempted the cultivation of madder. Pestalozzi knew nothing of business, and the plan failed. Before this he had opened his farm-house as a school; but in 1780 he had to give this up also. His first book published at this time was The Eveniny Hours of a Hermit, a series of aphorisms and reflections. This was followed by his masterpiece, Leonard and Gertrude, an account of the gradual reformation, first of a household, and then of a whole village, by the efforts of a good and devoted woman. It was read with avidity in Germany, and the name of Pestalozzi was rescued from obscurity. )Iis attempts to follow up this first literary success were failures. The French invasion of Switzerland in 1798 brought into relief his truly heroic character. A number of children were left in Canton Unterwalden on the shores of the Lake of Lucerne, without parents, home, food, or shelter. Pestalozzi collected a number of them into a deserted con-vent, and spent his energies in reclaiming them. " I was," he says, " from morning till evening, almost alone in their midst. Everything which was done for their Lody or soul proceeded from my hand. Every assistance, every help in time of need, every teaching which they received came immediately from me. 3fy hand lay in their hand, my eye rested on their eye, my tears flowed with theirs, and my laughter accompanied theirs. They were out of the world, they were out of Stanz ; they were with me, and I was with them. Their soup was mine, their drink was mine. I had nothing, I had no housekeeping, no friend, no servants around me ; I had them alone. liVere they well I stood in their midst; were they ill, I was ad their side. I slept in the middle of them. I was the last who went to bed at night, the first who rose in the morning. Even in bed I prayed and taught with them until they were asleep, - they wished it to be so." Thus he passed the winter, but in June 1799 the building was required by the French for a hospital, and the children were dispersed. We have dwelt especially on this episode of Pestalozzi's life, because in this devotion lay his strength. In 1801 he gay:. an exposition of his ideas on education in the book How Gertrude teaches her Children. His method is to proceed from the easier to the more difficult. To begin with observation, to pass from observation to consciousness, from consciousness to speech. Then come measuring, drawing, writing, numbers, and so reckoning. In 1799 he had been enabled to establish a. school at Burgdorf, where he remained 011804. In 1802, he went as deputy to Paris, and did his best to interest Napoleon in a scheme of national education; but the great conqueror said that he could not trouble himself about the alphabet. In 1805 he removed to Yverdun on the Lake of Neufchatel, and for twenty years worked steadily at his task. He was visited by all who took interest in educa-tien, - Talleyrand, Capo d'Istria, and Madame de Stael. He was praised by Wilhelm von Humboldt and by Fichte. His pupils included Ramsauer, Delbriick, Blochmann, Carl Ritter, Frobel, and. Zeller. About 1815 dissensions broke out among the teachers of the school, and Pestalozzi's last ten years were chequered by weariness and sorrow. In 1825 he retired to Neuhof, the home of his youth; and after writing the adventures of his life, and his last work, the Swan's Sony, he died in 1827. As he said himself, the real work of his life did not lie in Eurgdorf or in Yverdun, the products rather of his weakness than of his strength. It lay in the principles of education which he practised, the development of his observation, the training of the whole roan, the sympathetic application of the teacher to the taught, of which he left an example in his six months' labours at Stanz. He showed what truth there was in the principles of Comenius and Rousseau, in the union of train-ing with information, and the submissive following of nature ; he has had the deepest effect on all branches of education since hisdime, and his influence is far from being exhausted.
The Emile of Rousseau was the point of departure for an awakened interest in educational theories which has continued unto the present day. Few thinkem of eminence during the last hundred years have failed to offer their contributions more or less directly on this subject. Poets like Richter, Herder, and Goethe, philosophers such ac Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Schleiermac'ner, and Schopenhauer, psychologists such as Herbart and Beneke, have left direc-tions for our guidance. Inde,ed, during this time the science of education or pmdagogics, as 'the Germans call it, ; may have been said to have come into existence. It has € attracted but little attention in England ; but it is an important subject of study ad all German universities, and we may hope that the example given by the establishment of chairs of education in the Scotch universities may soon be followed by the other great centres of instruction in Great Britain. Jean Paul called his book Levana, after the Roman goddess to whom the father dedicated his new-born child, in token that he intended to rear it to manhood. He lays great stress on the preservation of individuality of character, a merit which he possessed himself in so high a degree. The second part of Wilhelm Meister is in the main a treatise upon education. The ( essays of Carlyle have made us familiar with the mysteries of the pmdagogic province, the solemn gestures of the three reverences, the long cloisters which contain the history of God's dealings with the human race. The most characteristic passage is that which describes the father's return to the country of education after a, year's absence. As he is riding alone, wondering in what guise he will meet his son, a multitude of horses rush by at full gallop. " The monstrous hurly-burly whirls past the wanderer ; a fair boy among the keepers looks at him with surprise, pulls in, leaps down, and embraces his father." He then learns that an agricultural life had not suited his son, that the superiors had discovered that he was fond of aoirnals, and had set him to that occupation for which nature had destined him.
The system of Jacotot has aroused great interest in this J country. Its author was born at Dijon in 1770. in, 1815 he retired to Louvain and became professor there, and director of the Belgian military school. He died in 1840. His method of teaching is based on three principles : - All men have an equal intelligence ; Every man has received from God the faculty of being able to instruct himself ; Every thing is in every thing.
The first of these principles is certainly wrong, although Jacotot tried to explain it by asserting that, although men had the same intelligence, they differed widely in the will to make use of it. Still it is important to assert that nearly all inen are capable of receiving some intellectual education, provided the studies to which they are directed are wide enough to engage their faculties, and the means taken to interest thera are sufficiently ingenious. The second principle lays down that it is more necessary to stimulate thc pupil to learn for himself, than to teach him didactically. The third principle explains the process which Jacotot adopted. To one learning a languaffe for the first time he would give a short passage of a rew lines, and encour-age the pupil to study firat the words, then the letters, then the grammar, then the full meaning of the expressions, until by iteration and accretion a single paragraph took the place of an eutire literature. Much may be effected by this method in the hands of a skilful teacher, but a charlatan might make it an excuse for ignorance and neglect.
Among those who have improved the methods of teaching, we must mention Bell and Lancaster, the joint-discoverers of the method of mutual instruction, which, if it has not effected everything which its founders expected of it, has produced the system of pupil-teachers which is common in our schools. Froebel also deserves an honour-able place as the founder of the Kindergarten, a means of teachino. young children by playing and amusement. His plans, ;hie11 have a far wider significance than this limited development of them, are likely to be fruitful of results to f uture workers.
The last English writers on education are Mr Herbert Spencer and Mr Alexander Bain, the study of whose writ-ings vain land us in those regions of predagogics which have been most recently explored. We need not follow Mr Spencer into his defence of science as the worthiest object of study, or in his rules for moral and physical training, vecept to say that they are sound and practical. In writing of intellectual education, he insists that We shall attain the best results by closely studying the develop-ment of the mind, and availing ourselves of the whole amount of force which nature puts at onr cRsposal. The mind of every being is naturally active and vigorous, ind_eed it is never at rest. But for its healthy growth it must have something to work upon, and, therefore, the teacher must watch its movements with the most sympathetic care, in order to supply exactly that food which it requires at any particular time. In this way a much larger cycle of attainments can be compassed than by the adoption of any programme or curriculum, however carefully drawn up. It is no good to teach what is not remembered ; the strength of memory depends on attention, and attention depends upon interest. To teach without interest is to work like Sisyphus and the Danaides. Arouse interest if you can, rather by high means than by low means. But it is a saving of pov,mr to make use of interest which you have already existing, and which, unless dried up or distorted by injudicious violence, will naturally lead the mind into all the knowledge which it is capable of receiving. Therefore, never from the first force a child's attention; leave off a study the moment it becomes weari-some, never let a child do what it does not like, only take care that when its liking is in activity a choice of good as well as evil shall be given to it.
Mr Bain's writings on education, which arc contained in some articles in the Fortnightly Review, and in two articles in Mind (Nos. v. and vii.) are extremely valuable. Perhaps the most interesting part of them consists in his showing how what may be called the " correlation of forces in man" helps us to a. right education. From this we learn that emotion may be transformed into intellect, that sensation may exhaust the brain as much as thought, and we may infer that the chief duty of a schoolmaster is to stimulate the powers of each brain under his charge to the fullest activity', and to apportion them in that ratio which will best conduce to the most complete and harmonious develop-ment of the individual.
It seems to follow from this sketch of the history of education that, in spite of the great advances which have been made of late years, the science of education is still far in advance of the art. Schoolmasters are still spending their best energies in teaching subjects which have been universally- condemned by educational reformers for the last two hundred years. The education of every public school is a farrago of rules, principles, and customs derived from every age of teaching, from the most modern to the most remote. It is plain that the science and art of teach-ing will never be established on a firm basis until it is organized on the model of the sister art of medicine. We must pursue the patient methods of induction by which other sciences have reached the stature of maturity ; we must discover some means of registering and tabulating results; we must invent a phraseology and nomenclature which will enable results to be accurately recorded; we must place education in its proper position among the sciences of observation. A philosopher who should succeed in doing this would be venerated by future ages as the creator of the art of teaching.
It only remains now to give some account of the very large literature of the subject.
The history of education was not investigated till the beginning of the present century, and since then little original research has been made except by Germans. Whilst acknowledging our great obligations to the German historians, we cannot but regret that all the investigations have belonged to the same nation. For instance, one of the best treatises on education written in the 16th century is Mulcaster's Positions, which has never been reprinted, and is now a literary curiosity.
Mangelsdorf and Ruhkopf attempted histories of educa-tion at the end of the last century, but the first work of note was I'. H. Ch. Schwarz's Geschichte d. Erzieltung (1813). A. H. .Niemeyer, a very influential writer, was one of the first to insist on the importance of making use of all that has been handed down to us, and with this practical object in view he has given us an Ueberblick der allgenteinen Geschichte der .Erziehung. Other writers followed; but from the time of its appearance till within the last few years, by far the most readable and the most read work on the history of education was that of Karl von Raumer. Raumer, however, is too chatty and too religious to pass for " wissenschaftlich," and the standard history is now that of Karl Schmidt. The Roman Catholics have not been content to adopt th.e works of Protestants, but have histories of their own. These are the very pleasing sketches of L. Kellner and the somewhat larger history by Stoeckl. When we come to writers who have produced sketches or shorter histories, we find the list in Germany a, very long one. Among the best books of this kind are Fried. Dittes's Geschichte and DrCise's Piiclagogische Characterbilder. An account of this literature will be found in J. Chr. G. Schumann's paper among the Peidago-gisehe Studien, edited by Dr Reiss. For biographies the pmdagogic cyclopmdias may be consulted, of which the first ls the Eneyklopadie des gesammten Erziehungswesens of K. A. Schmid, a great work in 11 or 12 vols. not yet completed, although the second edition of the early vols.
is already- announced. The Roman Catholics have also begun a large encyclopmdia edited by Rolfns and Pfister. No similar work has been published in France, but a Cycloptedia of Education in one volume has lately been issued at New York (Steiger, - the editors are Kiddie and Scherr), and in this there are articles by English as well as American writers. In French the Esquisse d'un systeme complet d' Education, by Th. Fritz (Stra.sburg, 1844. has a sketch of the history, which as a sketch is worth notice. Jules Paroz has written a useful little Histoire which would have been more valuable if it had been longer.
In English, though we have no investigators of the history- of education we have a fairly large literature on the subject, but it belongs almost exclusively to the United States. The great work of Henry Barnard, the American Journal of Education, in 25 vols., has valuable impels on almost every part of our subject, many of them trans-lated from the German, but there are also original papers on our old English educational writers and extracts from their works. This is by far the most valuable work in our language OD the history of education. The small volumes published in America with the title of " History of Education" do not deserve notice. In England may be mentioned the article on education by Mr James Mill, published . in the early editions of the Encyclopcedia Eritannica, and Mr R. H. Quick's most excellent Essays on Educational Reformers, published in 1868. Since then Mr Leitch of Glasgow has issued a volume called Practical Educationists, which deals with En Aish and Scotch reformers, as well as with Comenins and Pestalozzi. Now that professorships of education have been established we may hope for some original research. The first professor appointed was the late Joseph Payne, a name well known to those among us who have studied the theory of educa-tion. The professorship was started by the College of preceptors. At Edinburgh and at St Andrews professors have since been elected by the Bell Trustees.
Valuable reports as to the state of education in the various countries that possess a national sy-stem were presented to thc English Schools Inquiry Commission in 1 t.)67 and 1868, by inspectors specially appointed to investigate the subject. The reports on the Common School System of the United States and Canada by the Rev. James Fraser, on the Burgh Schools in Scotland by D. R. Fearon, and on Secondary .Education in France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, by Matthew Arnold, are included in Parliamentary Papers [38571 1867, and 13D66 v.], 1868.
The following is a list of some n seful hooks edueation generally ; - Ilcrbart, Allgemeine Pcielogogik, Gottingen, 1806 ; Schwarz, Erzie-hungslehre, 2 Auf. 1829 ; Diestcrweg, Wegweise fur Deutsche Lehrer, 1873 ; Niemeyer, Grundsidze der Erzichung mul des Unterriehts, IIalle, 1836 ; Eeneke, Erziehungs und Unterrichtslehre, 1832; Graefe, Allgenzeinc Piidagogik, 1845; Waitz, Allgem. PaYla-gogik, 1852 ; Herbert Spencer, Education - Intelleetual, Moral, and Physical. On special pointson the history of education : - Grasberger, Erziehung und Uutcrricht in Classisehen Alterthum ; A. Kapp, Platon's Erziehungslchre, Minden and Leipsic, 1833 ; Die Bruder-schaft des genteinsamen Lebow, by Delprat, translated into German, Leipsic, 1840 ; Heppe, Das Schulwesen des Mittelalters, Marburg, 1860 ; The Schools of Charles the Great, by Mullinger, 1877 ; IZos-mini, Vittorino da „nitre, 1801; Weicker, Dos Sehulwesen der JCSItitC71, Halle, 1863. The works of Comenins and other education-ists are most easily accessible in the Ptedagogisehe 13ibliothelc, edited by Karl Richter, Leipsie (now in course of imblication) ; J. Ilamsauer, Kurze Ski= meines Pitelagogisehen Lebens, Oldenburg, 1838 ; II. Blockmann, Heinrich Pestalozz.i, Leipsic, 1846 ; Krieger, Jacotot's Lehrmethode, Zweibriicken, 1830.
To these may be added : - M. Brea], Quelques mots sm.. I' instruction puldique, 1874; Dr James Donaldson's Lectures on Education, 1874; A. Droze's Charakterbader, 4th ed., 1872; Dittes, Gesch. de Erzie-hung, 3d ed., 1873; M. and R. L. Edgeworth's Practiced Educator, 1st ed., 1778; Marenholz-Billow's F.rinnerungen an F. Frobel, trans-1-itcd 1)y Mrs Horace Mann, Boston, U.S.; de Guimp's Histoire Pestalozzi, 1874; Isaac. Taylor .Lrome Education; P. H. Kohle's Grundziige der evangclisehen roiksschuterziehung, Breslau, 1873; L. Kellner's Erziehungsgeschiehte; II. Lantoinc, Histoire de l'Enseigne-ment seeondaire en France, 1874; J. S. Mill, Inaugural Address at St Andrews ; Pillans's Contributions to Education; J. Paroz, llistoire universelle de la pedagogie ; Rollin, Trete des Etudes ; Kriisi, Lift of Pestalozzi; Dr Arnold, Miscellaneous 1Vorks ; Dr Stow, Training S'ystem, llth ed., 1859; A. Stockl's Lehrbuch, der Gesehiehte der Padagogik, Mainz, 1876; T. Tate, Philosophy of Education; Abbot's 7'eacher ; F. A. Wolf, Ueber Erziehuizg, edited by Korth, 1835 ; L. Wiese, German Letters on English Education, 1877; Bohn, Kurzge-fasste Geschichte der Peidagogik. (O. B.) Law Relating to Education.
To the foregoing historical statement may be added some account of the different systems of education administered by statute in the United Kingdom : - England. - Until quite recently there was no public provision for education in England, and even now it is only the elementary education of the people that can be said to be ,regulated by the law. Parliament has indeed taken cognizanae of the. institutions founded for the higher education. The universities and the endowed schools have been enabled by various statutes to adapt themselves more completely to the wants of the times; but they still retain their character of local, and one might almost say private, corporations. Their administration is subject to the control of no state authority, and in districts where such institu-tions do not exist there is no public provision for supple-menting the deficiency. Elementary education, until the Act of 1870, was in the same way dependent on voluntary enterprise or casual endowment.
The first approach to a public system of education was by means of grants in aid of private schools, administered by a committee of the Privy Council. This system is not superseded by the Education Act of 1870, but means are taken to ensure the existence in every school district of a " sufficient amount of accommodation in public elementary schools." The school district is the borough or parish, except in the case of London and Oxford. When the amount of school accommodation in a district is insufficient, and the deficiency is not supplied as required by the Act, a school board shall be formed and shall supply such deficiency. Every elementary school is a public school in the sense of the Act if it is conducted according to the regulations in section 7, which in substance are : - It shall not be required, 23 a condition of any child being admitted into, or continuing in the school, that lie shall attend or abstain from attending any Sunday school, or any place of religious worship, or that he shall attend any religious observance or any instruction in religious subjects, in the school or elsewhere, from which observance or instruction he may be withdrawn by his parents, or that he. shall, if withdrawn by his parentt, attend the. school on any day set apart for religious observance by the religious body to which his parent belongs.
Time for religious observance or instruction in the school must be at the beginning or end of school meeting, and nmst be sliewn in a time table conspicuously posted in the school.
School must be open to inspection, except that the inspector is not to immire into religious knowledge.
School. must be conducted in accordance with the conditions required to obtain a parliamentary grant.
When the Education Department are satisfied after inquiry that the supply of public elementary schools as thus defined is in any district insufficient, they may cause Act describes the constitution, powers, duties, and revenues of school boards, as iu the following brief summary : - the ratepayers it, parisb, each voter . having a number of votes equal to the number of vacancies, having the right to give all or any number of such votes to any one candidate, and to distribute them as he pleases. The number of members varies from 5 to 15 as may be determined.. The London school board is elected under special regulations.
Powers and Dulles. - Every school board, for the purpose of providing sufficient public school accommodation for their district, may provide or improve schoolhouses and supply school apparatus &c., and purchase or take on lease any land or any right over land. Sect. 20 contains regulations under which the compulsory purchase of sites may be made. The schools provided by the board must comply with the following conditions : - (1) They inust be public elementary schools, in the sense defined above ; (2) No religions catechism or religious formulary, which is distinctive of any particular denomination, shall be taught in the schools. The board rnay delegate their powers (except that of raising money) to managers. Any breach of these regulations may subject the board to being declared in default by the Education Department, who will thereupon nominate a 11CW board. The fees of children attending board schools are to be fixed by the board, with the consent of the Department, but the board may remit fees on account of poverty for a renewable period not exceeding six months, and it is ex• pressly deckixed that " such remission shall not be deemed. to be parochial relief" given to the parent. Further, free schools may be established where the Education Department are satisfied that the poverty of the inhabitants is such as to render them necessary. Section 25 enables the board to pay the fees of poor children attend-ing any public elementary school, but "no such payment shall be made or refused on condition of the child attending any public elementary school other than such as may be selected. by the parent (sic), and such payment shall not be deemed to be parochial relief." This clause, which excited a vast amount of opposition in Parliament, was repealed by 39 and 40 Vict. c. 59 (see infra).
School boards may by a bye-law require the parents of all children between five and thirteen to send them to school, and it is a reason-able excuse (1) that the child is receiving efficient instruction in some other manner, or (2) is prevented by sickness, or (3) that that there i8 110 public elementary school within such distance not exceeding three miles as the bye-laws may prescribe. Breaches of any such bye-law may be recovered in a summary manner, but the penalty shall not exceed five shillings including costs.
Finally, it is provided that in future no parliainentary grant shall be tnade to any school which does not come within the definition of "public elementary school in tho Act."' Such grant shall not be made in respect of religious instruction, and shall not exceed. in any case the income of the school from other sources. No connexion with a religions denomination is necessary, and no preference is to be given to a school on account of its being or not being a board school. Otherwise the minutes of the Committee of Council govern the adminstration of the grant, such minutes to lie one month 011 the table of both Houses of Parliament before coming into force. - The Elementary Education Act, 1873, amends the Act of 1870 in several particulars not; necessary to be specified here.
,The Elementary Education Act, 1876, which came into operation on the 1st January 1877, declares that it shall be the duty of the parent of every child (meaning thereby a, child bet,,veen the ages of five and fourteen) to cause such child to receive efficient elementary instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic, - the duty to be enforced by the orders and penalties specified in the Act. The employment a certified efficient school, is prohibited unless the child is attending school in accordance with the Factory Acts, or by bye-law under the Education Acts. Section 10 sub-stitutes for section 25 of the Act of 1872 the following : - " The parent, not being a pauper, of any child, who is unable by reason of poverty to pay the ordinary fee for such child at a public elementary school, or any part of such fee, may apply to the guardians having jurisdiction in the parish in which he resides ; and it shall be the duty of such guardians, if satisfied of such Inabilitv, to pay the said fee, not exceeding threepence per week, or such pail thereof as he is, in the opinion of the guardians, so unable to pay."
This payment subjects the parent to no disqualification or disability, and he is entitled to select the school. The following new regulations are made as to the parliamentary grant. A child obtaining before the age of eleven a certificate of proficiency and of due attendance, as in the Act mentioned, may have his school fees for the next three years paid for him by the Education Department - such school fees to be calculated as school-pence. The grant is no longer to be reduced by its excess above the income of the school, unless it excceds 17s. Gd. per child in average attendance, but shall not exceed. that amount except by the same sum by which the income of the school, other than the grant, exceeds it. Special grants may be made to places in which the population is small. Other clauses relate to industrial schools, administrative provisions, &c.
Scotlan,(1. - Previous to the Education (Scotland) Act of 1872, the public elementary education rested ou the old parochial system, supplemented in more recent times by the parliamentary grants from the Committee of Council on Education. Under the old law the heritors in every parish were bound to provide a schoolhouse, and to con-tribute the schoolmaster's salary, half of which, however, was legally chargeable on tenants.2 The Education Act of 1872 establishes for a limited number of years a Board of Education for Scotland, to be responsible to the Scotch Education Department of the Privy Council, on which its functions are ultimately to devolve. The board makes an annual report to the department.
A. school board must be elected in every parish and burgh as defined in the Act. The number of members (between five and fifteen) is fixed by the Board of Educa-' tion, and no teacher in a public school is eligible. The election is by cumulative vote, and disputed elections are to be settled by the sheriff. The school board is a body corporate. Existing parish, burgh, and other s'Atools, established under former Acts, are to be handed over to the school board.
The school board, acting under the Board of Education, shall provide a sufficient supply of school accommodation, and in determining what additional amount is necessary, existing efficient schools are to be taken into account, whether public or not. Provision is made for the trans-ference of existing schools to the school board.
The clauses as to the school fund, and the power of the board to impose rates and to borrow money, are similar to those in the English Acts, and it is declared that sunk funds for behoof of burgh or parish schools shall be administered by the board, and that the board shall be at liberty to receive any property or funds to be employed in ptoinoting educa-tion. Schoolmasters in office at the passing of the A.ct are not to be prejudiced in any of their rights, but all future appointments shall be during the pleasure of the board, who shall assign slid' salaries and emoluments as they think fit.
Sections 56–.59 relate to the qualifications of teachers. A in incipal teacher in a public school must possess a certificate of competency or an equivalent as defined in the Act.
Section 62 contains provisions for the maintenance by the school board of higher class public schools in burghs, which are as far as practicable to be released from the necessity of giving elementary instruction, so that the funds may he applied more exclusively to the instruction on the higher branches. And when by reason of an endowment or otherwise a parish school is in a condition to give instruction in the higher branches, it maybe deemed to be a higher class school and managed accordingly.
Parliamentary c.,trants are to be made (1) to school boards, (2) to the managers of any school which is efficiently contributing to secular education. No grant shall be niade. na respect of (1) religions instruction, (2) new schools, not being kublic schools, unless it appears that they are required, regard being had to the relicrious belief of the parents of the children for whom they arc °intended, or other special circumstances of the locality. Section 63 is the conscience clause, and it niay be mentaoned. that the preanible of the Act states that it is expedient that managers. of public schools should be at liberty to continue thc custom ot.giving " instruction in religion to children whose parents did not object, with liberty to parents, without forfeiting any of the other advantages of the schools, to elect that their children should not receive such instmction." Section 69 imposes on parents the duty of providing elementary instruction for children between five and thirteen, and the parochial board shall pay the fee for .poor parents. Defaulters may be prosemted ; and persons receiving children into their houses or workshops shall be deemed to have undertaken the duties of parents with reference to the education of children. A certificate of the child's proficiency by an inspector protects the parent or employer from proceedings under the Act. Other clauses relate to the non-educational duties imposed by various Acts on schoolmasters (now transferred to registrars), and to the " Schoolmasters' Widows' Fund," to which new masters are not required to contribute.
The Education Board, continued by Order in Council to 6th August 1877, has been further continued by statute to 6th August 1878.
Ireland. - The public elementary school system depends on grants made to the lord-lieutenant, to be expended under " The object of the system of national education is to afford combined. literary and moral and separate reli,gious instruction to children of all persuasions, as far as possible in the same school, upon the fundaznental principle that no attempt shall be made to interfere with the peculiar religious tenets of any description of Clnistian pupils. It is an earnest wishof IIer Majesty's Government and of the commissioners that the clergy and laity of tbe different religious denominations should co-operate in conducting national schools."
The commissioners grant aid either to vested schools (i.e., schools vested. in themselves, or in local trustees to be maintained by them as national schools) or to non-vested (i.e., private schools), and the grant may be towards payment of salary or supply of books, or, in the case of vested schools, towards providing buildings.
The local government of the national schools is vested in the local patrous or managers thereof, and the local patron is the person who applies in the first instance to place the representative if he was a layman, and his successor in office if he. was a clerical patron, will be recognized by the com-missioners. The local patrons have the power of appoint-ing and removing teachers, subject to a rule requiring three months' notice to the teacher. Every national school must be visited three times a year by inspectors.
In non-vested schools, the commissioners do not in general make any conditions as to the use of the building after school hours ; but no national school house shall be employed made to a, school held in a place of worship. In all national schools there must be secular ' instruction four hours a day upon five days in the week. Religious instruc. Lon must be so arranged that each school shall be open to the children of all communions, that due regard be had to parental right and authority, and that accordingly no child shall receive or be present at any religious instruction of which his parents or guardians disapprove. In non-vested schools it is for the patrons and local managers to determine whether any and what religious instruction shall be given. In all national schools, the patrons have the right to permit the Scriptures to be read; and in all vested schools they must afford opportunities for the same, if the parents or guardians require it. (E. E.)