town county derbyshire vols
DERBY, the county town of Derbyshire, is a corporate and borough town, sending two representatives to Parliament, and consisting of five parishes. It is situated chiefly on the western bank of the river Derwent, upon ground of varying heights, and is surrounded with gentle eminences, from which flow the Markeaton and other brooks. It occupies a position almost in the centre of England, finest in the midland counties, and a Roman Catholic church (one of the best examples of Pugin). The Derby grammar school, an ancient foundation which occupies St Helen's House (once the town residence of the Strutt family), has lately had class-rooms added to it, erected by public subscription as a memorial of the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales. There are flourishing schools of art and science, a large and commodious infirmary for town and county, an arboretum of 17 acres, given to the town in 1840 by the late Joseph Strutt, Esq., a market square, a market hall, and water-works erected at a cost of £40,000, and since greatly extended. A recreation ground, free public swimming baths, a free library, and museum buildings have all been presented to the town by Mr M. T. Bass. Since about 1850 Derby has been greatly improved and extended, owing chiefly to the impulse given by the establishment of the head offices and principal workshops of the Midland Railway Company, and will be still further improved by the construction now in process of a branch of the Great Northern Railway, which passes through the town over a long series of arches.
Derby has been long celebrated for its porcelain, which rivalled that of Saxony and France. This manufacture was introduced in the year 1750, and although for a, time partially abandoned, it has been so far revived, and is still continued. There are also spar works where the fluor spar, or blue john, is wrought into a 'variety of useful and ornamental articles. The manufacture of silk, hosiery, lace, and cotton formerly employed a, large portion of the population, and there are still numerous silk mills and elastic web works, Sic. The iron manufacture is also of great importance ; among the larger establishments may be mentioned the Britannia Works, which furnished the roof of the great Agricultural Hall, London.
The sanitary condition of the town is much improved since the formation of a local board, and the rate of iaaor tality is low. Among benevolent institutions may be mentioned a ragged school, and a, nurses' " home." The population of the municipal borough, which occupies an area of 1796 acres, numbered 40,609 persons in 1851, 43,091 in 1861, and 49,810 in 1871. The parliamentary borough, which in 1867 was extended so as to include the townships of Litchurch and Little Chester, and covers an area of 2999 acres, had a population in 1871 of 61 381 - 29,882 males and 31,499 females.
Derby is a, town of great antiquity, but its origin is un-known. During the Heptarchy it was called Northworthig, and its present name Derby, or Deoraby, is due to the Danes. Constituted in the ninth century the chief town of the county by King Segurd, Derby was incorporated by Henry I. Its charter was surrendered to Charles II. in 1680, and a new one was granted in 1683, by which the government of the borouzla was vested in a mayor, 9 alder-men, 14 brethren, and 14 capital burgesses. In 1835 the town council was re-organized under the Municipal Corpora-tions Act, and now consists of a, mayor, 12 aldermen, and 36 councillors. Derby was the furthest place reached by the Pretender in his march towards London in 1745 ; he lodged in Exeter House, Full Street, and held there a council of war, which resulted in the abandonment of his project.
Bibliography : - History of Derby from the Remote Ages of Anti-quity, to the year MDCCXCI, by IV. Hutton, fivo, Lond. 1791 ; (reprinted with additions, 1817). Collection of Fragments Illustra-tive of the History and Antiquities of Derby, by Robert Simpson, 2 vols., Derby, 1826. New historical and Descriptive View of Derby-shire, by Rev. D. P. Davies, 8vo, Belper, 1811. View of the Pre-sent State of Derbyshire, Rm., by James Pilkington, 2 vols. 8vo, Derby, 1789. Magna Britannia, by Daniel and Samuel Lysons, vol. v. (Derbyshire), 4to, Lond., 1817. History and Gazetteer of the County of Derby, by Glover and Noble, 2 vols. (unfinished), Derby, 1831. Notes on the Churches of Derbyshire, vols. i. and ii., by Charles Cox, London and Chesterfield, 1876. (A. L. S.)