France Manufactures Mines And Quarries
francs millions manufacture seine value loire departments paris produce silk
FRANCE MANUFACTURES MINES AND QUARRIES Manufactures, Mines, and Quarries.
One of the foremost branches of manufacture in France - is that which has for its object the working up of textile materials. The gross amount of its produce is not less than 3,500,000,000 francs a year, and statistics published in 1873 return it as employing 308,481 men, 306,898 women, 69,948 children, 2777 steam-engines, and about 9,500,000 spindles. These figures relate to the period between 1861 and 1865, and are certainly very much less than if the enumeration had been taken more recently.
The flax gathered in 1873 weighed 54,874,740 kilogrammes (1,081,276 cwt.), and represented a minimum value of 84 millions of francs ; to which must be added 10,188,721 kilogrammes (200,766 cwt.) of hemp, at an average price of one franc a kilogramme. About 800,000 spindles are kept busy with this material. In this branch of trade the department of Nord ranks first ; it manufactures more than one-third of the total amount of linen produced. Seine, Sarthe, Maine-et-Loire, Seine-Inferieure, Calvados, Il]e-et-Vilaine, Lot-et-Garonne, Indre-et-Loire, and Seine-et-Oise are, next to the department of Nord, the chief seats of this industry.
The cotton manufacture has its centre in Normandy.1 More than a third of the total produce of the French cotton looms comes from the department of Seine-Inferieure ; Nord, Vosges, Calvados, Aisne, Aube, Orne, Meuse, and Euro have also a large share in the production of cotton yarn and cotton cloth. The department of Rhine is famous for its cotton muslins, the value of which is not less than 28 millions of francs. Meurthe produces a special kind of trimming, valued at about 3 millions of francs a year. French cotton goods cannot cope in cheapness with the English, but they are of fine quality, and on this account command a sale in the markets. In the absence of authentic documents, we may safely estimate the produce of cotton manufacture for 1872 at 500 millions of francs, and the plant engaged in the trade at 6 millions of spindles and 260 millions of looms of various kinds. The loss of Alsace has been a heavy blow to the cotton trade of France.
In the woollen factories 3,200,000 spindles are employed, giving work to more than 172,000 people. Wool fabrics amount in value to 1,200,000,000 francs, figures NI hich present a striking contrast to the valuation of Count Chaptal in 1812, which was not above 250 millions of francs. Large manufacturing houses are to be found especially in the departments of Ardennes (Sedan), Nord (Lille, Cambrai, &c.), Marne, Eure (Louviers), Harault ; while Rhine is noted for shawls, Bouches-du-Rhene for washing and combing, Calvados for wool yarns, Aisne for both yarns and tissues, Aude for drapery, &c. The special manufacture of Paris is that of shawls, damasks for furniture, merinos, and lighter fabrics as gauzes, muslins, bareges, &c.
The rearing of silk-worms and the production of silk can be traced far back in the industrial history of France. The first Avignon pope, Clement V., is said to have introduced the first silk-worms and the first mulberry trees (1305). This branch of industry soon assumed a national character, and all kings who, like Louis XI. and Henry IV., cared for the progress of commerce and manufactures, gave it encouragement and privileges. In 1780 France produced 6,600,000 kilogrammes of cocoons (14,549,194 1), having a value of 15,500,000 francs. The following table shows the progress made in the rearing of silk-worms from that date :- These 9,871,116 kilogrammes of cocoons gave 636,800 kilogrammes (12,547 cwt.) of raw silk. Twenty-one departments are engaged in the rearing of silk-worms,those which yield the largest produce being Gard, Draw, Ardeche, Vaucluse, Bouches-du-Rhene, Var, Isere, Wraith, Basses-Alpes, &c. After having undergone the various operations which transform the cocoon into regular yarn, the silk goes to the weaver. Nine-tenths of the silk is woven at Lyons, by 120,000 looms, belonging to 400 firms, with nearly 800,000 workers, who every year produce silk goods to a value of about 460 millions of francs.
The manufacture of lace gives employment to 240,000 women at Alen on, Bailleul (Valenciennes), Lille, Chantilly, Caen and Bayeux, Mirecourt, Le Puy, and Paris ; and there are 150,000 embroiderers spread over Paris, Lyons, Nancy, Epinal, Tours, 141irecourt, Lundville, Plombieres, St Mihiel, St Did, Alencon, Tarare, Caen, Le Puy, Lille, Cambrai, St Quentin, &c. The two industries contribute to the public wealth about 90 millions of francs every year.
Cotton hosiery has its central point in the department of the Aube, wool in Picardy, and silk at Nimes, Lyons, and Paris; the last also manufactures nearly the whole produce of France in linen hosiery. The annual value of this branch of industry may be stated approximately at 200 millions of francs.
The number of shoemakers is above 83,000, and they employ about 120,000 workmen and assistants. Shoes of cloth (ehaussons) are made by 819 firms, employing 5200 workmen and assistants; and wooden shoes, an important branch of the business, are made chiefly in the departments of Cantal, Orne, Sarthe, Vosges, Vaucluse, and Puy-de Dome, and in Brittany, by 34,700 makers, assisted by 77,500 workmen. It has been calculated that this article has a value of about 530 millions of francs. Paris, Grenoble, Lundville, Vendtime, Blois, lieziers, Annonay, and Niort are the chief seats of the manufacture of gloves, which represents a sum of about 70 millions of francs.
Hats and caps are made every year to the value of 50 millions, by 6200 houses, employing about 24,000 workmen. Millinery, chiefly made in Paris, gives work to about 4000 persons, most of whom are women. It may be valued at 25 millions of francs, Tailors and outfitters of all kinds number about 74,000, and give work to 82,000 workmen, seamstresses, and shop-assistants.
Beet sugar is extensively made in the north of France. The manufacture of this sugar in a raw state was thus distributed for the year 1876 :--- , • , These quantities are produced by about 510 manufactories. Ninety establishments are especially engaged in refining the first produce extracted from beetroot, or from the sugar cane ; about 180,000 tons of raw sugar are received annually from the colonies, French and foreign, by these refining establishments, which employ 3400 workers. The yearly value of the manufacture amounts to 14-0 millions of francs.
Wine, treacle, and the juice of the beetroot are the substances from which the largest quantity of the alcohol produced in France is extracted. About 3500 firms are engaged in distillation ; the produce for the year 1875-76 was divided thus :- To this 429,648 hectolitres (9,456,409 gallons) are to be added, distilled by small proprietors who do not manufacture much more than for their own Consumption, and are known by the name of bouilleurs de cm Normandy and Brittany are the chief centres for the production of cider. In 1876 about 7,035,669 hectolitres (154,845,539 gallons) were manufactured. There are about 3200 brewers, who send out not less than 7,400,000 hectolitres of beer (162,871,543 gallons), worth about 200 millions of francs; but, as hops are but little cultivated in France, 3 millions of francs are spent yearly in importing them. The largest manufactories of vinegar are in the departments of Loiret and Loire-Inferieure ; it is made almost exclusively from wine, but malt and some other substances are now beginning to be used. The total value is about 3 millions of francs.
The dressing and tanning of hides and skins has greatly increased of late years ; it now represents a sum of 400 millions of francs, or about a million of francs more than in 1852.
The principal soap manufactories are at Marseilles, its production being 800,000 quintals (1,576,354 cwt.) ; Nantes and Paris hold the second rank. It has been calculated that France produces annually 2 millions of quintals (3,940,886 cwt.) of soap. Candles are chiefly made at Paris. This branch of manufacture has a total value of 300 millions of francs, whilst the production of soap amounts to 4-50 millions. French perfumery is appreciated through the world, and gives a yearly return of more than 50 millions of francs.
The departments of Vienne, Seine, Sarthe, and Puyde-Dome are the centres of the fabrication of earthenware and bricks ; in Haute-Vienne, Var, and Gironde the special manufacture is china. In 1847 official statistics valued at 85,964,000 francs the total produce of that industry; this value has certainly more than doubled since. great manufactory kept up by the state at Sevres forms a school in which artistic workmen are trained, so that the art is maintained in a high degree of perfection. Crystal wares are made in eight works, established in the departments of the Meurthe-et-Moselle, Seine, and Orne, among which special mention most be made of Baccarat, which is to this branch of industry what Sevres is to the ceramic. Looking-glasses are a very important article of manufacture in France, - that country possessing no fewer than 6 out of the 15 or 16 establishments in Europe. The principal manufactory is at St Gobain (Aisne), and the value of the produce of the whole is above 14 millions of francs. Glass of a more common kind is made in about 250 establishments, and is valued at SO millions of francs. The departments of Nord, Haute-Saone, Haute-Loire, Allier, Seine-Inferieure, Seine, Aveyron, and Loire are famed for common window and plate glass; bottles are chiefly manufactured in the department of Nord, and in the basins of the Loire and RliOne ; the most ancient works established for this manufacture are at Quiquengrogne (Aisne), and date as far back as 1291.
The most important paper-mills are situated in Charente, Pas-de-Calais, Seine-et-Oise, Isere, Vosges, Seine-Inferieure, Seine, Eure, and Seine-et-Marne. Paris is celebrated for its paper-hangings and stained papers. In 1856 Moreau. tie Jonnes valued the produce of this manufacture at 55 millions of francs. Notwithstanding the special taxes now levied on it, this amount has undoubtedly increased by a large sum.
In the period between the 1st November 1811 and the 31st December 1872 603,849 works have been published in France, subdivided thus :- In 1872 the number of publications of all kinds was 15,744, 3614 of which were musical works, and 1571 engravings, maps, or plans. Proprietors of political newspapers must deposit with the treasury a guarantee that they will pay the fines to which the press law often renders them liable ; security to the amount of 24,000 francs is required in the department of Seine, and 12,000 francs in the others. If the paper appears only once or twice a week, the security required is only 18,000 francs in the department of Seine and 6000 in the rest of France. The paper on which political newspapers are printed is charged besides with a tax of 20 francs per 100 kilogrammes (about 8s. 1Y1. per cwt.). Notwithstanding this 854 political newspapers, 210 of which were daily, were published in France (54 of them in Paris) in 1873. Non-political periodicals were not fewer than 1220, to which number Paris contributed 718, divided thus : - religious, 81; educational, 21; legal, 42 ; administration, 18 ; political economy, insurance, and commerce, 40; stock-exchange interests, 39; medical, 54 ; natural philosophy, 45; agricultural, 37 ; military and naval, 23; history and geography, 17; fine arts and architecture, 49 ; literary and critical, 56 • fashion and (the amusement of the young, 81; archmological, 14; public works, 26 ; technology and popular science, 50.
The printing and bookselling trades are carried on by about 7000 persons, who may be classed as follows : - The principal mines which France possesses are coal and iron mines. Coal-pits are almost exclusively confined to the east, south-east, and north of the country. The richest departments are Nord (239 square miles), Pas-de-Calais (201), Gard (187), Sa6ne-et-Loire (165), fierault (113), Loire (110), and Bouches-du-RhOne (107). The whole area is about 2200 square miles, and comprises 623 separate concessions, which, however, are not all being worked. The yield of coal mines in 1876 was 170,477,613 quintals (16,795,824 tons), the following being the most productive districts : - Peat is to be found in 40 departments, but especially in Somme, Pas-de-Calais, Loire-Inferieure, Isere, Oise, Seineet-Oise, Aisne, Nord, Doubs, Marne, Vosges, and Aube. The cutting of this fuel, so useful to the poorer classes, gives work tofrom 30,000 to 40,000 men, whose wages amount to a total of about 4 millions of francs. The mines of mineral tar yield about 3 millions of quintals (295,566 tons) annually. Sa6ne-et-Loire, Allier, and Ardeche are the principal centres of its production.
France is very rich in iron mines ; but as these are generally far from the districts which produce coal, the working expenses are considerably increased, and sometimes to such an extent that the metal extracted cannot repay the outlay required for its extraction, and the mines have to be abandoned. The production of iron, however, is on the increase, and reaches 7-.1i millions of quintals (738,915 tons), which represent about 14,500,000 quintals (1,428,571 tons) of pig-iron. The details in quintals of this production for 1876 are appended :- In some iron-works, especially those which are established in the chain of the Pyrenees, wood is still used as fuel : 185,024 quintals (18,266 tons) of iron were made by this process in 1876. The production of steel was for the same year 2,618,767 quintals (258,006 tons), the largest part of which came from the departments of Loire, Sa6ne-etLoire, Gard, Allier, Nord, and Rhone. In 1864 there were 64 mines from which other metals than iron were extracted, viz., 39 of silver ore (gaThne argentifere and alquifoux) in the departments of Hautes-Alpes, Finistere, Gard, Haute-Garonne, Ille-et-Vilaine, Isere, Loire, Haute-Loire, Lozere, and Puy-de-Dome ; 12 of copper (RhOne and Vosges); 8 of antimony (Cantal, Haute-Loire, Lozere, Puyde-DOnie) ; 4 of manganese, and 1 of nickel. There were 5066 men employed in working these mines, which gave a return of 4,955,515 francs. But these statistics cannot be relied on, except for the year of their publication, as old mines are constantly closed and new ones opened. In 1869, for example, there is no mention of silver mines, and the mines of manganese are 9 in number instead. of 4 as given above.
The quarries of France are about 24,000 in number, giving employment to more than 88,000 men. The last valuation of the produce was made in 1846, and amounted to 41,017,519 francs, but it must be much higher now. Marble is abundant, especially in the departments of Pyrenees, Bouches-du-Ilhone, Puy-de-D6me, Henault, Hautes-Alpes, Corse, Ariege, &c. Alabaster is found in the departments of the Yonne, in the valley of Aspe (Pyrenees), at Lagny (Seine-et-Marne), and at Montmartre (Paris), Lithographic stones are common in the departments of Ain, Indre, and COte-d'or. Slates are principally extracted from the quarries of Cherbourg and St L6 (Manche), Angers (Maineet-Loire), and Fumay (Ardennes). Limestone is abundant in 50 departments, and 38 yield plaster.
Paris is the chief centre of the manufacture of artistic objects in gold or silver ; in 1860 the workmen were 18,731 in number, distributed among 3199 establishments, and the business was transacted to the value of not far from 184 millions of francs. Lyons holds the second place, and then Bordeaux, Marseilles, Nimes, Besancon, Clermont-Ferrand, and Toulouse. The gross value of the various metals used by the trade at the same period was calculated at 52,625,000 francs, silver forming about a third of the whole.
The manufacture of watches and clocks yields a revenue of 30 millions of francs. Large iron clocks are made at Morez (Jura); time-pieces are constructed in part at St Nicolas d'Alierniont (Seine-lnf(rieure) and at Montbdliard, and finished at Paris; watches are begun at Montbeliard and Cluses (llaute-Savoie), and finished at Paris and Besancon. This last town is the central place of the trade, and represents 991- per cent. of the total manufacture; 15,000 persons, men, women, and children, are employed in this trade, and in 1872 diey turned out 135,276 gold and 259,626 silver watches.