Fu Ad Pasha
turkish appointed minister
FU AD PASHA, MEHMED (1814-1869), a Turkish statesman and author, was born at Constantinople in 1814. His father, Izzet-Effendi Kitchegizadey, better known as Izzet-Mollah, was a man of wealth and position, and had a high-reputation as a poet ; but he fell into disgrace with the Turkish Government, and his estates were confiscated. Fuad being therefore compelled to adopt a profession chose that of medicine ; and after studying from 1828 to 1832 at Galata-Serai, he was appointed in 1834 physician to the admiralty, and accompanied the expedition against Tripoli. On his return to Constantinople he quitted the medical service and entered the interpreters' office, with the view of qualifying himself for a diplomatic post. In 1840 he accompanied the Turkish embassy to London as first secretary, and in 1843 he was appointed to the office of second interpreter to the Turkish Government, and subsequently to that of director of the translation office. Shortly after he was sent to congratulate Isabella II. on her accession to the throne of Spain. In 1845 he was appointed chief interpreter to the Porte; and in 1848, as grand-referendary of the imperial divan, he was named Ottoman commissioner, to settle the revolutionary disputes in the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. On his return from a special mission to Russia he was named minister of the interior, and shortly afterwards minister of foreign affairs. In 1853 he published a pamphlet on the question of the holy sepulchres, which greatly irritated the czar of Russia, and led Prince Menschikoff to act in such a manner that Fuad Pasha felt compelled, from self-respect, to tender his resignation to the Turkish Government. Shortly afterwards war was declared between Russia and Turkey, and lie was appointed commissioner at the headquarters of Omar Pasha. In 1855 he resumed his duties of foreign minister, and he continued in that office till the close of the war. In 1857 he became president of the council of tanzimat, in 1860 was appointed commissioner to Syria to settle the disputes between the Druses and the Maronites ; shortly after his return lie was named grand vizier ; and in 1863 lie became war minister, and a little later returned to his old post of foreign minister. In 1867 he accompanied the sultan to England and France. He died at Nice, whither he had gone for the benefit of his health, February 12, 1869. Fuad Pasha was one of the first members of the Turkish Imperial Academy of Sciences and Belles-Letters, founded in 1851. He is the author of a poem entitled Alhambra, written after his sojourn in Spain, and of a Turkish grammar. The suave and genial manners of Fuad Pasha, and his diplomatic talents, stood Turkey in good stead in connexion with the Crimean war and the various negotiations in reference to Turkey's relation to her Christian subjects, and helped to inspire a faith in her capacity for reforms, which later events have shown to have been largely misplaced. He endeavoured to secure to his country the material ad vantages to be derived from the adoption of European improvements, but his measures effected no lasting reform in her administration ; and by the adoption of :heedless system of credit, he largely increased her financial difficulties.