FRIES, ELIAS A.IAGNUS (1794-1878), an eminent Swedish botanist, was born at Smaland, August 15, 1794. As his father, the pastor of the church at Femsjo, was a zealous and accomplished botanist, Fries during his walks with him early acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants ; and about the age of twelve he was led by the discovery of a remarkably brilliant Ilyd72u1n to commence the study of the Agarics and other fungi. After attending school at Wexio, he in 1811 entered the university of Lund, where in 1814 he was elected docent of botany, and in 1824 professor. In 1834 he became professor of practical economy at Upsala, and in 1844 and 1848 he represented the university of that city at the Rigsdag. In 1851 he succeeded Wallenberg as emeritus professor of botany at Upsala, and there, on the 8th February 1878, he died, having only by a few days outlived the centenary of his illustrious predecessor Linnaeus. Fries was admitted a member of the Swedish Royal Academy in 1847, and a foreign member of the Royal Society of London in 1875.
As an author on the Cryptogamia Fries occupies the first rank. lie wrote Novitice Flora Sue,cicce (1814 and 1823) ; Observations Hycologicce (1815); Flora Hollandica (1817-18); System Mycolopicum (1821-29); S'ystema Orbis Vegetabilis, not completed (1825); Elenehus Fungorum (1828); Lieh,enographia Europaea (1831); Epricisis Systenuais Mycologiei (1838 •, 2d ed., or Hymenomycetes Europa', 1874) ; Summa Vcgetabilium Scandinavia (1846) ; Sveriges &liga och giftiga Svampar, with coloured plates (1860); Monographic Hymenomyeetunt Suede-cc (1863), with the Icons Hymenontycetunt, vol. i. (1867), and pt. i. vol. ii. (1877).