GATES, HORATIO (1728-1806), an American general, was born at Maldon in Essex, England, in 1728. He entered the English army at an early age, and soon obtained considerable promotion. He was severely wounded while accompanying General Braddock in his unfortunate expedition against the French settlements on the Ohio in 1755, and he took part in the expedition against Martinieo in January 1762. After the peace of 1763 he purchased an estate in Virginia, where he resided till the commencement of the revolutionary war in 1775, when he was named by congress adjutant-general. In 1776 he was appointed to command the army on Lake Champlain ; but, his conduct there not having been approved of, he was superseded in:the following spring ; yet in August he was sent to oppose General Burgoyne, whom he totally defeated on the 16th of October, and compelled to surrender his whole army, - an achievement which was, however, largely due to the previous manoeuvres of Schuyler, whom Gates superseded. After obtaining the chief command in the southern districts, Gates was totally defeated at Camden, in South Carolina, by Lord Cornwallis, on the 16th of August 1780. On this account he was superseded by General Greene; but an investigation into his conduct terminated in acquitting him fully and honourably of all blame, on the ground that his defeat had been unavoidable in the disorganized state of the army under his command. After this he again retired to his Virginian estate, whence he removed to New York in 1800. On his arrival he was immediately admitted to the freedom of the city, and then elected a member of the State legislature. Before his departure from Virginia he granted emancipation to his slaves, accompanying their manumission with a provision for those who needed assistance. He died on the 10th of April 1806.