CONTINENTAL EUROPE. - On the continent of Europe numerous areas of ancient gneiss rise from under the oldest fossiliferous formations. In Scandinavia the structure of part of the country resembles that of the north-west of Scotland : the fundamental-gneiss (Urgneiss), covering a large area, is overlaid unconformably by red sandstones which underlie the most ancient strata containing organic remains. The gneiss and its accompanying rocks range through Finland into the north-west of Russia, reappearing in the north-east of that vast empire in Petchora Land down to the White Sea, and rising in the nucleus of the chain of the Ural Mountains, and still further south in Podolia. In Central Europe they appear as islands in the midst of more recent formations. In the midst of the Carpathian Mountains they protrude at a number of points, but westwards in the Alpine chain they rise in a more continuous belt in the central portion of these crests, and show numerous mineralogical varieties, including protogine, mica-schist, and many other schists, as well as limestone and serpentine. But perhaps their most intelligible sections are those which they present in Bavaria and Bohemia between the valley of the Danube and the headwaters of the Elbe. They are there divided into two well-marked groups - (a) red gneiss, covered by (b) grey gneiss. According to °umbel the former (called by him the Bojan gneiss) may be traced as a distinct formation associated with granite, but with very few other kinds of crystalline or schistose rocks, while the latter (termed the Hercynian gneiss) consists of gneiss with abundant interstratification of many other schistose rocks, graphitic limestone, and serpentine. The Hercynian gneiss is overlaid by mica-schist, above which comes a vast mass of argillaceous schists and shales. Giimbel some years ago found in the marbles associated with the younger gneiss what he considered to be an organism of the same genus as the E0.70021 of Canada, to which reference will immediately be made. He named it Eozoon Bavaricuni. More recently a similar substance was obtained in the Archaean series of Bohemia, and named by Fritsch Eozoon Bohemicum.