GHAZfPUR, a.district of British India, in the lieutenant-governorship of the North-Western Provinces, and included in the Benares division. It is bounded on the N. by Azimgarh and Saran, E. by Saran, S. by Shahabad, and W. by Benares and Jaunpnr. Ghazipur forms part of the great alluvial plain of the Ganges, which divides it into two unequal portions. The northern subdivision lies between the Guinti and the Gogra, whose confluences with the main stream mark its eastern and western limits respectively. The southern tract is a much smaller strip of country, enclosed between the Karamnasa and the great river itself. No hill or natural eminence is to be found in the district, A few lakes are scattered here and there, formed where the rivers have deserted their ancient channels. The largest is that of Suraha, once a northern bend of the Ganges, but now an almost isolated sheet of water, 5 miles long by about 4 broad.
Ghazipur is a closely cultivated district, and out of a total area of 2168 square miles 1546 are actually under cultivation. The harvests are the same as those common to the whole of the plain districts of the North-Western Provinces. The census of 1872 returned a total population in Ghazipur district of 1,345,570 souls (males 696,572, females 648,829), dwelling in 3725 villages or townships, and inhabiting 285,007 houses. The Hindus numbered 1,221,810, or 90.7 per cent., and Mahometans, 123,455. Of the 'Mee higher Hindu castes there were - Brahmans, 123,012 ; liajputs, 295,355; and Baniyas, 49,538. The lower castes are represented by the Ahirs, 171,216; Cluimars, 122,075 ; liayasths. 22,480 ; and Kurnais, 18,136. Amongst the Mussulmans, the Sheikhs numbered 26,940; Sayyids, 452_5; Mughals, 570; and Pathans, 18,452. The district is rich, and in the eastern parts the soil is extremely fertile, so that the cultivators are, on the whole, in easy circumstances. Sixteen towns contain a population exceeding 5000, viz., Ghazipur, 38,853; Mahatwar lihas, 8975 ; Shiupur Dine, 9279 ; Galmier, 9050 ; Sherpur, 7958 ; Iliotipur, 9323 ; Berra, 5424; Chit, 5821 ; Narhi, 5527 ; Bansdih, 7319; Rioti, 7700; Mather, 5285; Bailie, 8521; Bairia, 5589; Sonbarsa, 7162; and Basra, 7261. The chief imports into the district are English piece goods and thread, cotton, salt, spices, and grain ; the principal exports, country cloth, sugar, fuller's earth, oil seeds, and hides. The headquarters of the Government opium manufacture is at Glthzipur town. Carbonate of soda is manufactured from the rely or saline efflorescence of the barren mar plains, and largely exported. Saltpetre is also largely prepared from the same source. The great trade route is the Ganges, but good roads connect all the principal centres with each other. The East Indian Railway runs for 24 miles through the district, with stations at Zamaniah, Dildarnagar, and Gahmar. The total amount of imperial, local, and municipal revenue of the district in 1876 was £200,000. Ghazipur is said to be one of the hottest end dampest districts in the North-Western Provinces. In 1869 the annual mean temperature was SO' Fehr., the lowest monthly mean being 61° Fehr., in January, and the highest 98°, in May. The average total rainfall for 11 years from 1860 to 1871 was 40'1 inches, the maximum being 50'5 inches, in 1861, and the minimum 21'5 inches, in 1868.