town county vessels tonnage
GALWAY, the county town, and a parliamentary borough, is also a county in itself, with an exclusive jurisdiction extending two miles on every side except the south. It stands on the northern shore of the Bay of Galway, on both sides of the river Corrib, which connects Lough Corrib with the sea. The space within the walls formed an oval of about 3426 square perches. Some of the streets are very narrow, and contain several curious specimens of old buildings, chiefly in the antique Spanish style, being square, with a court in the centre, and a gateway opening into the street. The finest of these is the pile of buildings known as Lynch's Castle. During the last few years many large situps have been built in the principal streets, and several handsome residences have been erected in the suburbs. St Nicholas church is the most remarkable building in the town. It is cruciform, 152 feet long by 126 broad, with a steeple rising over the nave, and the side aisles separated from the centre by Gothic pillars. It contains several antique monuments. The exchange, near the church, consists of an open corridor, 90 feet long by 2S broad, with a front of arches supporting an upper story, in which are apartments for holding the local courts, and for other public purposes. St Augustine's church (Roman Catholic), an edifice in the First Pointed style, was erected in 1850. The county court-house is an elegant and commodious building ; near it are the county and town prisons. The town also contains a county infirmary, a union workhouse, is fever hospital, three monasteries, five nunneries, and two barracks. A. grammar-school is in the immediate neighbourhood of the town. Queen's College, built of beautiful grey limestone, is an elegant and extensive quadrangular structure in theTudor Gothic style. Near the college is a national school. The shipping trade of Galway his for some time been gradually increasing. In 1877 the number of British vessels that entered the port was 153, with a tonnage of 30,034 ; of foreign vessels 33, with a tonnage of 16,166. The number of British vessels that cleared was 136, with a tonnage of 29,827 ; of foreign vessels 27, with a tonnage of 13,225. The chief articles exported are agricultural produce, woo], and marble. There are a brewery, a distillery, a paper mill, a Cannery, and several flour mills ; and a company has recently been formed fur the purpose of extracting iodine and marine salts from seaweed. The salmon fishery is of considerable value. Galway is divided into the old and new towns, and the maritime suburb of Claddagh, inhabited almost entirely by fishermen and their families, who have acquired or retained certain peculiar usages and habits of their own, Little is known of the history of Galway until after the arrival of the English, at which time it was under the protection of O'Flalierty, who possessed the adjoining district to th✓west. On the extinction of the native dynasty of the O'Connors, the town fell into the hands of the De Burgos, the head of a branch of which, under the name of M`William lighter, long governed it by magistrates of his own appointment. After it had been secured by walls, which began to be built in 1270, it became the residence of a number of enterprising settlers, through whom it attained a position of much commercial celebrity. Of these settlers the principal families, fourteen in number, were known as the tribes of Galway. They were of Norman, Saxon, or Welsh descent, and became so exclusive in their relationships that dispensations were frequently requisite for the canonical legality of marriages among them. The town rapidly increased from this period in wealth and commercial rank, far surpassing in this respect the rival city of Limerick. Richard II. granted it a charter of incorporation with liberal privileges, which was confirmed by his successor. It had the right of coinage by Act of Parliament, but there is no evidence to show that it exercised the privilege. Another charter, granted in 1545, extended the jurisdiction of the port to the islands of Aran, permitted the exportation of all kinds of goods except linens and woollens, and.confirmed all the former privileges. Large numbers of Cromwell's soldiers are said to have settled in the town ; and there are many traces of Spanish blood among the population. Its municipal privileges were extended by a charter from James I., whereby the town, and a district of two miles round in every direction, were formed into a distinct county, with exclusive jurisdiction and a right of choosing its own magistrates. During the civil wars of 1641 the town took part with the Irish, and was surrendered to the Parliamentary forces under Sir Charles Coote ; after which the ancient inhabitants were mostly driven out, and their property was given to adventurers mid soldiers, chiefly from England. On the accession of James the old inhabitants entertained sanguine hopes of recovering their former rights. But the successes of King William soon put an end to their expectations ; and the town, after undergoing another siege, again capitulated to the force brought against it by General Ginkell. In the beginning of the present century the walls were thrown down, and buildings erected on their site.
Galway is governed by a high sheriff, a recorder, local magistrates, and a board of 24 commissioners elected triennially. The area of the municipal borough is 955 acres. The population in 1861 was 16,967, and in 1871 15,597, of whom 14,424 were Roman Catholics. The parliamentary borough has an area of 22,493 acres, and a population of 19,843.